20 Branches of Agriculture and Related Fields | Detailed

In this article, the major focus is done on 20 major branches of agriculture and their sub related fields for the ease of understanding the agricultural field. A list of Agriculture Universities and offering specialization is already posted.

What is Agriculture

The word “agriculture” is derived from two Latin words, “Ager/Agri” means “soil” and “Cultura” means “cultivation”. Agriculture is a practical science that includes all attributes of crop production and development involving agronomy, forestry, horticulture, fishing, live-stock, etc.

Agriculture is well-defined as the art, science, and business of crop cultivation and livestock rearing for economic objectives.

Art: This includes knowing how to skillfully perform farm operations, but certainly doesn’t involve knowledge of the operative principles behind the farm management.

Science: Use of all the available technologies developed according to scientific values such as plant breeding, production, protection, economical methods, etc. to increase crop yield and farm profit. Techniques e.g., new crop varieties production by crossbreeding of pest and disease resistant plant varieties, production of crop hybrids, varieties with high sensitivity to fertilizers, water management, herbicides for weed control, the use of bio-control agents for pest and diseases, etc. are all included in science.

Business: As long as agriculture is a rural lifestyle, food production is eventually linked to consumption. However, as a business, it seeks to maximize its bottom line by managing agricultural labor, capital, and water using the information to produce food, fiber, feed, and fuel. Recently, agriculture has transformed into a commercial category to be adapted as a business through modern automation.

Agriculture includes several fields like horticulture, seed growing, dairy farming, and animal husbandry, use of land as pastures, grasslands, vegetable gardens, and forest nurseries, and the use of land for forests where they are used for agricultural purposes and use of land for agricultural purposes. ”

Evolution of Agriculture and Role of Humans

Agriculture has passed through several stages during the process of agricultural development and human civilization. Humans have played a significant role in agriculture development by engaging them in hunting, cattle breeding, crop cultivation, and trade.

Hunting: It used to be the main food source. This is an important occupation and has been around for a very long time.

Pastoral: People received food from domestic animals, such as dogs, buffalo, horses, cows, etc. While living on the edges of the forests, to feed the animals, humans kept migrating from place to place in search of food.

Crop Culture: Living by the riverbeds, humans obtained enough water for their animals and domestic plants and began to grow them. This led them to settle in one place building communities.

Trade: When humans began to produce more than their needs, they started exchanging the surplus for other useful products, from there the trading started. With agriculture development, the infrastructures such as roads, routes, etc. also started developing. Agriculture became civilized, starting with a trading culture.

Branches of Agriculture

There are 20 major Branches of Agriculture:

  1. Agronomy
  2. Horticulture
  3. Plant Breeding and Genetics
  4. Seed Science
  5. Crop-Physiology
  6. Plant Pathology
  7. Plant Protection
  8. Soil Science
  9. Entomology
  10. Agriculture Biotechnology
  11. Agriculture Engineering
  12. Agriculture Economics
  13. Forestry
  14. Animal Husbandry
  15. Environmental Sciences
  16. Food Science and Technology
  17. Land and Water Management
  18. Agricultural Chemistry
  19. Agricultural Microbiology
  20. Home Science

As we know that agriculture is a vast field and has several branches and sub-branches. A detailed explanation of fields of agriculture is given below:

Agronomy

Branch of agriculture deal with the cultivation of crops, forage, food, fiber, oil-seeds, sugar, etc. The primary aim of this branch is to improve food production and cropping techniques. It is the most important branch among all branches of agriculture. It covers vast types of agricultural practices like permaculture, aquaponics, polyhouse farming, etc.

Agronomy

Branches of Agronomy

There are 2 branches of agronomy:

1. Weed Sciences

Study of vegetation growth and management in agriculture fields, natural zones, and in urban and residential areas.

2. Organic Farming

A method of growing plants and animals naturally is known as organic farming. This involves biological materials, and averting the use of synthetic substances, to sustain soil fertility and ecological stability, minimalizing waste and environmental pollution. Moreover, the growing of microgreens also comes under organic farming.

Horticulture

Branch of agriculture which deal with the plant’s cultivation that is directly used by humans for food, medicine, and aesthetic purposing.

Horticulture

Branches of Horticulture

There are 7 branches of horticulture:

1. Pomology

Branch dealing with fruit cultivation is known as pomology.

2. Olericulture

Branch of horticulture dealing with vegetable cultivation such as beans, tomatoes, etc.

3. Floriculture

The branch of horticulture deals with flower cropping such as roses, carnations, etc, and gardening.

4. Arboriculture

Branch of horticulture deals with the assortment, planting, maintenance, and removal of trees, shrubs, and other woody plants.

5. Landscaping

Branch of horticulture dealing with the production, presentation, and care of landscapes, flowers, and other plants.

6. Viticulture

Cultivation and retailing grapes are known as viticulture.

7. Oenology

Study of all the characteristics of wine plant and wine-making.

Plant Breeding and Genetics

Branch of agriculture defined as the art and science of modifying the genetic structure and plant traits to obtain the desired characters.

Plant Breeding and Genetics

Seed Science

The branch deal with the seed structure and growth habitats starting from fertilization, egg development, and growing into a new plant. Seed science is closely related to biochemistry, botany, genetics, and other biosciences.

Seed Science

Crop-Physiology

Crop physiology is the study of the functions and responses of plants grown in different environments. It is one of the most basic fields of agriculture.

Crop Physiology

Plant Pathology

Plant pathology deal with the causes of disease, instabilities in plants, and the treatment of plant diseases.

Plant Pathology

Plant Protection

Plant protection is a branch of ​​agriculture that aims to prevent damage from disease, insect-pests, and weeds.

Soil Science

Among several branches of agriculture, soil science is of great significance because of its direct influence on plant growth and nutrient supply.

The study of soil as a natural body that is created by natural forces on the surface of the earth on which plants grow. The study of soil properties in relation to soil use and management, soil classification, formation, and mapping of the chemicals, physical, biological, and soil fertility properties, is known as soil science.

Soil Science

Branches of Soil Science

Among other branches of agriculture, soil science is the most important because it is the primary source of nutrition for the plants. There are 10 branches of soil science:

1. Soil Chemistry

Study of chemical compositions, properties, and soil processes.

2. Soil Biology

It concerns organisms living on the earth, their biology, function, and activities e.g., nematodes and insects.

3. Soil Mineralogy

Branch focuses on primary and secondary soil-minerals and their soil contribution, to develop physical, and chemical structure of the soil. It also focuses on soil fertility and biology.

4. Soil Genesis and Classification (Pedology)

Soil formation is associated with rocks and minerals weathering, as well as with aspects and courses of soil formation. Soil classification is a division of soil into groups based on their properties.

5. Soil Physics

The mechanical behavior of the mass of the soil especially with water and soil energy.

6. Soil Fertility

It is about the capability of the soil to deliver plants with the essential nutrients for their growth and development.

7. Soil Salinity

Study of the excess of soluble-salts contained in the soil, their extraction, and soil treatment for agriculture.

8. Soil Survey

Soil science involves the systematic inspection of soils on-site and in the laboratory, their classification, interpretation, and mapping.

9. Soil Conservation

It is concerned with protecting the soil from physical destruction as a result of erosion (from water and wind) or chemical destruction. Thus, soil protection is associated with a mixture of all management and land-use approaches that protect the soil from destruction due to natural or anthropogenic factors.

10. Soil Microbiology

While dealing with several fields of agriculture, soil microbiology examines soil for microbial communities. It deals with their role and characteristics in soil fertility and land reclamation, and particular plant nutrition through rooting or diseases caused by phytopathogenic microbes in the soil.

Entomology

Branch of agriculture that studies insects and pests that are important to agriculture.

Entomology

Branches of Entomology

There are 13 branches of entomology:

1. Insect Ecology

The study of the relationship between insects and their environment. This section is devoted to the study and analysis of the ecosystem for the existence of insects. The goal is to protect insects from being removed or exterminated.

2. Insect Morphology

In this area of ​​entomology, the body parts of insects and their functions are studied. This branch is mainly associated with the outer parts of the insect’s body.

3. Insect Pathology

This area of ​​entomology studies diseases, and pathogens that can harm and affect the well-being of insects. To save beneficial insects, the scientist use pathogens or vectors to get free of certain harmful insect pests.

4. Insect Physiology

This deals with the numerous body function and behavior systems of an insect. This includes studying the various behaviors of insects in relation to the ecosystem.

5. Insect Toxicology

The study of how insecticides and other-chemicals affect the physiological functions of insects.

6. Insect Taxonomy

Insect taxonomy is a practice of insect naming. This is an ongoing process as several un-identified insects are still roaming planet Earth.

7. Industrial Entomology

The Entomology branch deals with the cultivation of insects for commercial or economic purposes. These include honey bees, bumble bees, butter flies, silk worms, etc. This branch is concerned with the benefits of humanity. On the other way, this also applies to the removal of harmful insects from houses such as cockroaches, termites, house flies, etc.

8. Medical and Veterinary Entomology

Insects harms not only human beings but also animals. It covers all aspects related to veterinary health and medicine such as malaria, dengue, etc.

9. Biological Control Entomology

The use of insects against harm-full insects. Use of friendly insects to take care of harmful insects known as biological control, e.g., wheat aphid ate by ladybird.

10. Post-Harvest Entomology

Branch concerned with the study and insect control that harm stored food such as rice, wheat, etc.

11. Forest Entomology

Study of the effects of insects’ on forest and forest-products and development of a solution to protect forest trees from extreme damages.

12. Forensic Entomology

Branch deals with the study of insects for legal purposes focus on the use of insect to clarify the place and time of human-health.

13. Crop Protection Entomology

Studies ways to control insects before harming the field crops are known as crop-protection entomology, also “agricultural entomology”.

Agricultural Biotechnology

Branch of agriculture which includes the application of scientific techniques and tools, involving vaccines, molecular markers, genetic engineering, and tissue culture, to alter the genome of living organisms to develop improved organisms e.g., crops and livestock.

In relation to several other fields of agriculture, currently, agricultural biotechnology is of major focus because of its genetic approach. Researchers believe that transgenic crops and animals could be a source to maintain a suitable food supply and fulfill global food needs.

agriculture branches

Agriculture Engineering

Works with agriculture machinery for preparation, sowing, harvesting, and post harvesting operations, counting water and soil protection technologies and bioenergy.

agriculture engineering

Branches of Agriculture Engineering

There are 3 branches of agriculture engineering:

1. Agricultural Mechanization

The use of agricultural machinery to automate agricultural work, which significantly increases the productivity of agricultural workers and production efficiency, mechanization promotes large-scale production.

2. Farm Power and Machinery

Branch of agriculture in which the utilization and care of agricultural tools, machines, and structures are done.

3. Farm Structures

A building on a farm is used for agricultural purposes. especially large-scale farms, used to accommodate farmer and their families or farm workers. Some of them can be utilized for growing crops, rearing live-stock, etc.

Agricultural Economics

An applied economic field that studies human behavior with respect to the relation-ship between food and fiber production and distribution.

Agriculture Economics

Branches of Agriculture Economics

There are 7 fields of agriculture economics:

1. Agrarian System

Economic and technical factors affecting agronomic practices.

2. Agribusiness

Several businesses including agriculture product processing and farming, supply of seed, agrochemicals, equipment, marketing, and retail, etc. are all included in agribusiness.

3. Agricultural Extension

Formerly known as the implementation of the latest research and knowledge to agriculture practice through farmer trainings. The expansion area now includes a wider ranges of communications and training activities planned by professionals in various fields for the rural population, including agriculture, marketing, health-care, and business management.

4. Agricultural Marketing

Covers services related to the movement of agriculture products from farm to consumers, direct or indirect transfers.

5. Custom Harvesting

The business of collecting plants for others. Harvesting is done with other people’s harvester every year instead of buying their own. Custom harvesters usually have their own harvesters, and they work on the same farms every harvest season. Thanks to custom harvesting, farmers do not need to invest in expensive equipments while making the most of the machinery’s use for a low cost.

6. Economic Development

Sustained concentrated action by politicians and communities to improve living standards and economic health.

7. Rural Community Development

A set of approaches and activitiess aimed at improving the well-being and life of people living in rural areas. Improving rural activities will sustain population stability by lowering rural urban migration.

Forestry

Forestry is engaged in the extensive cultivation/farming of perennial plants for the supply of rubber, timber, etc. as well as industrial raw-materials.

agriculture branches

Branches of Forestry

There are 6 branches of forestry:

1. Agro-Forestry

Agroforestry is a science that deals with land-use management system for growing trees, shrubs, on or between crops.

2. Rangeland Management

Natural science focuses on the study of pastures and “the maintenance and sustainable supervision of drylands for the benefit of today’s society and future generations.

3. Wildlife Management

Studies to balance the wildlife with those needs of humans using the latest scientific evidence.

4. Analog Forestry

A system of planned managed forests that are primarily used in tropical or sub-tropical zones.

5. Forest Gardening

A low maintenance plant-based food and agro-forestry system grounded on forest eco-systems with fruits and nuts trees, shrub, grasses, vine, and perennial vegetables that benefit directly from the yield.

6. Forest Farming

Agro-forestry practices are categorized by 4 I’s – Intentional, Intensive, Integrated, and Interactive supervision of a prevailing forest ecosystem in which forest-health is supreme.

Animal Husbandry

Branch of agriculture engaged in the agriculture exercise of breeding and rearing of livestock to provide people with food and energy (drafts) and crop manure.

Animal Husbandry

Branches of Animal Husbandry

There are 9 branches of animal husbandry:

1. Dairy Farming

Human demand for milk is met by the dairy sector, which means the long term accessibility and production of milk, which is then treated to ultimately meet society’s milk needs.

2. Sericulture

A branch of agriculture that cultivates silk, which grows silkworms for silk production and commercial purpose, especially the Bombyx mori L. species.

3. Aquaculture (Fishery)

Branch engaged in fish farming and rearing, counting marine and in-land fish to provide food and manure.

4. Mariculture

A specialized aquaculture industry that includes the rearing of the marine organism for food and added products in the ocean, in closed areas, or in reservoirs filled with sea water.

5. Nematology

An essential branch that studies a noble diverse group of round worms known as nematodes, which are found in virtually all environments around the world.

6. Apiculture or Beekeeping

Beekeeping means raising and keeping colonies of honey bees, usually in artificial and natural hives, to obtain honey from bees and other bee goods.

7. Poultry

Poultry farming is also one of the branches that deal with birds that are bred to meet the food requirements for eggs, meat, and feathers.

8. Nomadic Pastoralism

Rearing of livestock during the phase of migration from region to region in pasture and clean water search.

9. Piggery

Concerned with the rearing and breeding of pigs for the live-stock needs.

Environmental Science

Field that mixes biological, physical, and informational science in the study of the environment and solving ecological problems.

Branches of Environmental Sciences

There are 2 branches of environmental sciences:

1. Energy & Environment

Branch deal with the potential of bio-energy as an economical engine for rural growth and a growing awareness of worldwide climatic change.

2. Agro-Meteorology

Agro-meteorology deal with studies of the environment’s physical conditions for the cultivation of plants or animals.

Food Science and Technology

Among known fields of agriculture, food science and technology uses a variety of approaches to study the composition of food, processing, packaging, and selection of existing foods products.

food science and technology

Branches of Food Science and Technology

There is one branch of food science and technology:

1. Food and Nutrition

Corporal and economical access to decent and cheap nutritious food is a primary function of the agriculture sector by supporting an increase in production, improving storage and post-harvest handling, and reducing transporting costs.

Land and Water Management

The process of management and expansion of land-resources. Resources are mainly used for organic farming, water management, reforestation, and ecotourism projects.

Branches of Land and Water Management

There are 2 branches of land and water management:

1. Soil and water conservation

This branch deal with reducing runoff through structures or land-use to reduce erosion.

2. Irrigation & Drainage

Irrigation and drainage, artificial land irrigation, or artificial excess-water removal from the land. As some areas need to be irrigated or drained already so can be used for agriculture.

Agricultural Chemistry

Among branches of agriculture, this specific branch deals with chemistry, particularly organic and bio-chemistry, related to agriculture, production and the raw food processing into desired foods and drinks, and environment restoration.

Agriculture branches

Agricultural Microbiology

Branch of agriculture deal with the part micro-biology that deals with microbes linked with diseases of plants and animals. Deal with the study of soil fertility restoring micro-biology e.g., microbial decomposition of organic matters and the conversion of nutrients in the soil.

Agricultural Microbiology

Home Science

A most interesting branch of agriculture deal with the best application and use of agriculture products in healthier means.

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  1. Clint Emoto December 13, 2020
    • Admin December 13, 2020
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