Plant Terms And Botanical Terminologies: Detailed Glossary

The classification of plants has additional groupings that do not exist in the classification of animals. Therefore, the plants are categorized in several ways according to their general botany. And, the concepts described in this glossary of plant terms and botanical terminologies also relate to general plant botany like root, stem, leaf, fruit, etc.

Plant Terms And Botanical Terminologies

Below is the glossary of plant terms and botanical terminologies encompassing general definitions and concepts relevant to plant botany.


Plant Parts


Bud: An undeveloped, vegetative, or floral shoot, covered with protective scales, or consisting of a short axis bearing primordia of leaves or floral pans.

Flower: Reproductive structure of angiosperms, consisting usually of sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels. After fertilization, the ovules of flowers develop into seeds.

Fruit: Mature ovary of flowering plants containing the seeds.

Leaf: Produced from the buds on the stem, the leaves are photosynthetic and transpiring organs of the plant. They are usually green and expanded and have a wide range of forms.

Root: Organ of a plant that develops initially from the radicle, grows down into the soil, and functions for absorption and anchorage.

Seed: Fertilized ripe ovule of flowering plants.

Stem: Organ of a plant that develops initially from the epicotyl, grows mostly above the ground, and functions for support and conduction


Plant Types (Habit and Habitat)


Annual: A plant that completes its entire life cycle, from seed to reproduction to death, in one single growing season.

Aquatic: Organisms growing in water.

Biennial: A plant that completes its entire life cycle in two growing seasons. In the first growing season, the plant grows vegetatively, while in the second growing season it flowers, mature seed, and then die.

Climber: A weak-stemmed plant with roots in the ground and climbing the other plants, etc. to support itself with the help of its tendrils or adventitious roots, etc. Usually, climbers twist around their support.

Creeper: A plant, which is unable to support itself, and spreads along the ground.

Epiphyte: A plant, growing on stems or branches of other plants, with no roots in the ground, but not taking nutrients on which, it is growing.

Habit: Appearance of an organism, e.g., herb, shrub, etc.

Habitat: The place in which an organism or a community is found.

Herb: A small, usually annual plant, with no wood in its stems or roots.

Liana: An annual or perennial, elongate, plant, with a weak stem, which is often climbing:

Parasite: An organism, which takes all its nutrients from the tissues or another organism, usually with harmful effects.

Perennial: A plant that grows and reproduces for many years.

Shrub: A much-branched, small, woody perennial plant with several branches from ground level upwards.

Tree: A tall, woody, perennial plant with a single trunk, which usually bears branches.

Vine: A creeper of family Vitaceae.

Xerophyte: A plant that lives in dry habitats or in a desert.


Types of Roots


Adventitious Root: Root arising from any part of the plant body other than the radicle. It arises from an organ other than the root.

Tap Root: The main, persistent, primary root of the plant, which shows apical dominance and develops from the radicle.

Modified Roots

Aerial: A root arising from a part of a plant, which is above the ground, e.g., betel.

Annulated: Root having a series of ring-like swellings, e.g., Psychotria.

Assimilatory: Green, chlorophyll-containing roots, e.g., Trapa natans.

Buttress: Roots having plant-like or board-like growth on the upper side. These are supportive structures, e.g., Terminalia bellirica.

Clasping or Climbing: These arise on the nodes of weak-stemmed plants and help them to climb or fix on the support, e.g., Pothos.

Conical: Cone-like, i.e., broad at the base and tapers gradually towards the apex, e.g., Daucus carota.

Contractile: Roots capable of shortening and contain a wrinkled surface, e.g., Crocus.

Fasciculated: Fleshy or tuberous roots in a duster, e.g., Asparagus.

Fibrous: Fine, thread-like roots, e.g., monocotyledons.

Fleshy: Succulent roots, e.g., Dahila.

Fusiform: Root thickened in the middle and tapering at the ends, e.g., Raphanus sativus.

Haustorial: These are absorbing roots, present within the host of some parasitic plants, e.g., Balanophdra.

Knee or aerating: These are vertical or horizontal above the ground roots e.g., Heritera.

Leaf roots: Roots arising on the margin of the leaf from adventitious buds, e.g., Bryophyllum.

Moniliform: Root thickened at certain intervals giving a beaded appearance, e.g., Momordica.

Mycorrhizal: Root in a symbiotic relationship with fungal hyphae, e.g., Monotropa.

Napiform: Root almost spherical at one end and tapering sharply at the lower part, e.g., turnip, Beta vulgaris.

Nodulose: Root bearing a small knot at or near the apex, e.g., Curcoma domestica.

Pneumatophorous or Respiratory: Spongy, aerating roots of marshy plants, e.g., Rhizophora.

Prop or Stilt: Supportive roots which grow out from the bottom of the trunk into the ground, e.g., Ficus benghalensis.

Tuberous or Tubercular: Fleshy-roots appearing like stem tubers, e.g., Ipomoea batatus (Sweet potato).

Types of Roots
Types of Roots (Root modifications)

Types of Stem


Based (Surface, Forms, and Modifications)

Acaulescent: Stemless or with an inconspicuous stem.

Aerial: Stem, which remains above the ground, e.g., Sesbania.

Angular: Stem showing many angles in a transverse section, e.g., Asparagus.

Arborescent: Woody and treelike, e.g., Mangifera.

Branched: Stem with many branches, Ranunculus.

Bud: Small embryonic stem tip bearing leaves or flowers, or both.

Bulb: An underground, short, erect stem covered by fleshy leaves, e.g., Allium cepa.

Bulbel: A young small bulb developed from the base of a large bulb.

Bulbil: A bulblike body developed on the above-ground parts, e.g., Agave.

Stem types and modifications
Stem types and modifications

Caudex: A short, hard, overwintering base of a perennial herb, e.g., palms.

Caulescent: Possessing a distinct stem.

Cespitose: Short, much-branched, cushion-like plant.

Cladode: A phylloclade in which a branch of a single internode becomes leaf-like, e.g., Asparagus.

Cladophyll: A leaflike, flattened, green stem.

Climbing: Growing towards upper side by means of tendrils, petioles, adventitious roots, etc. e.g., pea, betel.

Columnar: Erect with a strong trunk.

Corm: Solid, round, bulblike, fleshy, underground stem, usually surrounded by membranous scales, e.g., Gladiolus.

Cormel: Young small corm developing at the base of parent corm, e.g., Amorphophallus.

Creeping: Trailing stem having roots throughout its length, e.g., Oxalis.

Culm: Flowering and fruiting stem of sedges (Cyperaceae) and grasses (Poaceae), e.g., Cyperus, Cynodon.

Cylindrical: Stem showing circular outline in transverse section.

Decumbent: Stem bending in one direction, e.g., Tridax.

Dichotomous: Stem dividing equally into two, e.g., Pandanus.

Diffuse: Branches of stem spreading in all directions, e.g., Boerhaavia.

Eranious: With unbranched stems.

Erect: Growing upright e.g., Abutilon.

Fastigiate: Sloping upward and unparallel.

Fistular: Stem hollow from the inner side. E.g., wheat.

Fruticose: Woody and shrub-like.

Geniculate: Zigzag stem, or bending abruptly at the node, e.g., Vitis.

Glabrous: Smooth or without hairs. e.g., Lemon.

Glaucous: Shining and smooth.

Hairy: Covered with hairs; e.g., Calotropis.

Herbaceous: Soft, non-woody; dying to the ground at the end of the growing season, e.g., Eclipta

Internode: Region of Stem between any two nodes, e.g., Cynodon.

Laticiferous: Containing latex, e.g., Calotropis.

Leaf Scar: A mark on the stem showing the former place of attachment of leaf base or petiole.

Lenticel: Lens-shaped or wartlike pore in the bark.

Node: The area of the stem from which arise branches, leaves; or a leaf, e.g., sugarcane.

Offset: A short, thick, creeping stem bearing a tuft of leaves above and a cluster of leaves below at the apex, e.g., Eichhornia, Pistia.

Pachycauly: Thick, short, frequently succulent stems, e.g., cacti.

Phylloclade: A flat or round, green, succulent stem with leaves either ill-developed or modified into spines, e.g., Opuntia, Coccoloba.

Phyllode: A flat petiole, which has the appearance of a leaf. e.g., Australian Acacia.

Prickle: A sharp, pointed extension of epidermis or cortex, e.g., Pisonia.

Primocane: The first-year, non-flowering stem.

Procumbent or Prostrate: Growing flat or parallel on the ground, e.g., Portulaca.

Pterocaulous: Winged stem.

Pubescent: Covered with fine silky hairs.

Ramose: Branched stem.

Repent: Creeping stem.

Rhizome: A horizontal, prostrate, or underground stem bearing scale-like leaves, e.g., ginger, Canna.

Rootstock: A caudex, or a rhizome, or any underground portion of a plant, e.g., Alocasia.

Runner: A horizontal stem, creeping aboveground, usually rooting and producing plants at the nodes, e.g., Cynodon.

Sarcocauly: Fleshy stems.

Scandent: Climbing stem.

Scape: A leafless flowering stem arising from an underground stem, e.g., Canna.

Scapose: Possessing a scape.

Scars: Remains of a point of attachment of leaf, stipule, scale, bud, etc.

Sclerocauly: Hard, woody stems.

Spine: A stiff, pointed outgrowth.

Stolen: A runner; or a horizontal stem rooting at the nodes, e.g., Fragaria indica.

Stoloniferous: Bearing stolons.

Subterranean: Underground.

Sucker: A subterranean creeping stem, usually fast-growing and adventitious, e.g., Mentha, banana.

Suffrutescent: Woody at the base.

Supine: Prostrate stem with parts oriented upward.

Tendril: Long, twisting appendage, adapted for climbing, e.g., Vitis.

Thorn: A sharp, pointed, reduced branch, e.g., Duranta.

Tiller: A grass shoot developed from the base of the stem.

Trailing: Stem sprawling on the ground with the help of adventitious roots.

Tuber: Thick, enlarged fleshy tip of an underground stem, e.g., Solanum tuberosum.

Turion: An overwintering bud.

Twig: A short lateral branch of a woody stem.

Twinner: Stem ascending by coiling on the support without any special device, e.g., Abrus.

Virgate: Long, straight, slender or thin, stick-like.

Woody: Hard in texture and possessing secondary xylem, e.g., Mangifera indica.

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Types of Leaf


Compound leaf: A leaf in which the leaf blade or lamina remains divided into smaller, bladelike parts or leaflets is called a compound leaf. A compound leaf may be palmately compound or pinnately compound.

Palmately Compound Leaf: If the leaflets diverge from a common point at the end of the petiole, in the same way as the fingers from the palm of the hand, the leaf is called the palmately compound. In such leaves, if a single leaflet is articulated to the petiole, it is called unifoliate, if two, three, or four leaflets are articulated to the petiole, it is called bifoliate, trifoliate, or quadrifoliate, respectively and if five or more leaflets are articulated to the petiole it is called multifoliate.

Pinnately Compound Leaf: If the leaflets are attached on both sides of one central rachis, the leaf is called the pinnately compound. In such leaves, if the leaflets are attached directly to the midrib, the leaf is called unipinnate.

A unipinnate leaf having an even number of paired leaflets is called paripinnate, while that which contains an odd terminal leaflet is called imparipinnate. Such a pinnately compound leaf, in which the midrib produces secondary axis, and on the latter are present the leaflets, is called bipinnate; if the midrib of pinnately compound leaf produces secondary axis, and the latter produces the tertiary axis which bears the leaflets, it is called tripinnate. If the leaf is more than thrice pinnate, it is called decompound.

Simple Leaf: A leaf with the blade in a single part is called a simple leaf. The single blade may, however, be variously divided.


Types of Leaf Apex (Fig. A-M)


Acuminate: Drawn but in the form of a long slender tail, or tapers to a protracted point (Fig. A).

Acute: Ending into a sharp point in the form of an acute angle but not drawn out (Fig. B).

Apiculate: Ending into a short, sharp, flexible point, or an apicula (Fig. C).

Aristate: Tapering to a very narrow, much-elongated apex, or bearing a stiff awn (Fig. D).

Caudate: Containing a tail-like appendage (Fig. E).

Cirrhose: Apex ending into a tendril-like structure (Fig. F)

Cuspidate: Abruptly and sharply concavely constricted into a sharp and elongated pointed tip (Fig. G).

Emarginate: Containing a deep or shallow notch at the apex (Fig. H)

Mucronate: Terminating abruptly into a short and sharp point (Fig. I)

Mucronulate: Diminutive or smaller form of mucronate (Fig. J).

Obcordate: Deeply lobed at the apex (Fig. K).

Obtuse or Rounded: Blunt or rounded (Fig. L).

Retuse: Slightly notched obtuse apex (Fig. M).


Types of Leaf Base (Fig. N-Y)


Attenuate: Base showing a long gradual taper (Fig. N).

Auriculate: Bearing an appendage or ear-shaped part at the base (Fig. O).

Connate-perfoliate: Base on opposite sessile leaves, the stem appears passing through them (Fig. P).

Cordate: Heart-shaped (Fig. Q).

Cuneate: Wedge-shaped; triangular with the narrow end at the attaching point (Fig. R).

Hastate: Resembling with an arrowhead; halberd-shaped (Fig. S).

Oblique: Two sides of the base being unequal-sized (Fig. T)

Obtuse: Rounded or blunt (Fig. U).

Peltate: Attached to its Stalk inside the margin (Fig. V).

Perfoliate: Sessile leaf whose base completely surrounds the stem (Fig. W).

Sagittate: Base like an arrowhead, or triangular (Fig. X).

Truncate: Blunt, or appearing as if cut off at the end (Fig. Y).

Types of Leaf apices and Leaf bases.
A-M, Leaf apices N-Y, Leaf bases.

Kinds, Modifications, And Parts Of Leaf


Blade: Expanded, flat part of the leaf.

Bract: Reduced and modified leaf found in inflorescence.

Bracteole: Small leaf found on the pedicel of the flower.

Cauline: Leaf arising only on the main axis.

Cauline and Ramal: Leaves arising on the main axis as well as side branches.

Chaff: Bract present at the base of the tubular flower in Asteraceae.

Cotyledon: Embryonic leaf.

Epetiolate: Sessile leaves.

Epetiolulate: Sessile, leaflets.

Epicalyx: Leaves present below the true calyx, e.g., Malvaceae.

Evergreen: Persistent.

Exstipulate: Without stipules.

Floral leaves: Calyx, corolla, stamens, and carpels.

Flytrap: Hinged leaves of insectivorous plants.

Fugacious: Falling soon.

Glume: Bract, of the spikelets of sedges and grasses.

Incomplete: Leaf without one or more parts, e.g., without a petiole.

Involucral bracts: Bracts present below the inflorescence in Asteraceae.

Leaflet: A distinct or separate segment of the leaf.

Lemma: Outer bract subtending the grass floret.

Ligule: Finger-like small part present at the upper end of the leaf sheath.

Palea: Inner bract subtending the grass floret.

Parts of leaf: Leaf base, stipule, petiole, lamina, midrib, veins, veinlets.

Petiolate: Leaf with a distinct stalk.

Petiolulate: Leaflets with a stalk.

Phyllary: A bract subtending the inflorescence in Asteraceae.

Pitcher: Tubular or pitcher-shaped leaf of insectivorous plants.

Prophyll: Bracteole.

Pulvinus: Swollen base of petiole or petiolule.

Rachilla: Secondary axis of a compound leaf.

Rachis: Main axis of a pinnately compound leaf.

Radical: Leaves arising from a bulb or another underground stem.

Scaly leaf: Small, nongreen leaf.

Seed leaves: Cotyledons.

Sessile: Without petiole.

Spathe: An enlarged bract enclosing an inflorescence.

Sporophylls: Spore-bearing leaves.

Stipel: Scale or gland present at the base of a petiolule.

Stipule: Scale, gland, or blade-like structure at the base of the petiole of the leaf

Storage leaf: Fleshy, succulent leaf.

Tendril: Coiled, modified leaflet.


Types of Leaf Margin


Biserrate: When each tooth of the serrated margin is again serrated

Ciliate: Margin-bearing hairs.

Crenate: With blunt, low rounded teeth.

Crenulate: Finely debate.

Crispate: Curled and extremely undulated.

Dentate: With sharp, marginal teeth pointing outward.

Dissected: Cut or deeply divided into many segments.

Divided: Cut into distinct segments or sections, extending to the midrib or base of the leaf.

Entire: With a continuous smooth margin; lacking any teeth, lobes, or indentations.

Incised: Provided with sharp and irregular incisions.

Lacerate: Tom or irregularly cut.

Lobed: Provided with many lobes extending one-third to one-half the distance between the midrib and the margin.

Palmatifid: Cut about halfway down in a palmate form.

Parted: Dissected or cut almost to the midrib.

Pinnatifid: Parted in a pinnate way, or divided almost to the midrib.

Repand: Wavy in appearance.

Revolute: With the margin rolling inward i.e. towards the underside of the leaf.

Runcinate: When the teeth of the serrated margin are pointing backward.

Serrate: With the marginal teeth pointing towards the apex.

Serrulate: When the teeth in the serrated margin are very minute.

Sinuate: With a deeply wavy margin.

Spinous: Provided with projecting spines.

Undulate: With a slightly wavy margin.


Types of Leaf Phyllotaxy


Alternate: Bearing one leaf at each node.

Distichous: When alternate leaves appear on just two sides of the stem.

Opposite: Bearing leaves paired, at each node on opposite sides.

Opposite decussate: When two successive opposite pairs of leaves occur at a right angle to each other.

Opposite Superposed: When all the successive opposite pairs of leaves occur at the same plane.

Radical or basal: When leaves often form a cluster at the ground level.

Tristichous, pentastichous, and octostichous: In the alternate arrangement of leaves, if the fourth leaf comes over the first one, the arrangement is called tristichous; if the sixth leaf comes over the first one after completing two revolutions of spiral, it is called pentastichous; and if the ninth leaf comes over the first one after completing three revolutions of the spiral, it is called octostichous.

Whorled or verticillate: Bearing three or more leaves at each node.


Types of Leaf Shape


Acicular: Needle shaped.

Auriculate: Ear shaped.

Cordate: Heart-shaped.

Cuneate Wedge-shaped with lower end narrow.

Deltoid: Delta-like or triangular.

Elliptical: Oval in outline, being narrowed to form rounded ends and widest at the middle.

Falcate: Sickle-shaped.

Filiform: Long, slender, and thread-like.

Hastate: Like an arrowhead.

Lanceolate: Much longer than broad; or lance-shaped; or widening above the base and tapering towards the tip.

Linear: Long, flat, and narrow with almost parallel sides.

Lorate: Strap-shaped, or like a narrow strip of leather.

Lyrate: Like a lyre. i.e. having a big terminal lobe and several smaller lateral lobes.

Obcordate: Inversely cordate

Oblanceolate: Broad at the middle and tapering towards both the ends.

Oblique: When two halves of the lamina arc unequal

Oblong: Long, wide with parallel margins.

Obovate: Upper terminal half broader than the lower basal half; opposite to ovate.

Ovate: Egg-shaped; broad at the base and narrowing towards the apex.

Pandurate: Resembling obovate with a distinct concavity along each basal side; fiddle-shaped.

Sagittate: Like an arrowhead; or triangular.

Spathulate: Spoon-shaped.

Subulate: Tapering from base to apex; awl-shaped.

types of Leaf Margin and Leaf Shape
A. Leaf Margin. B. Leaf Shape

Types Of Stipules


Adnate: Attached fully to the petiole as wings.

Basal: Stipules attached near the base of the petiole.

Foliaceous: Stipule resembling; with a large leaf.

Interpetiolar: Present in between the petioles of opposite leaves.

Intrapetfolar: Situated in the axil of leaves, and their margins fuse above the petiole.

Lateral: Present laterally on the petiole.

Ochreate: Fused to form an ochrea or a fused tubular nodal sheath around the internode.

Photosynthetic: Large, green, and leaflike or foliaceous.

Scaly: Dry, small, and membranous stipule.

Sheathing or Protective: Enclosing a bud or flower.

Spinous: Stipule in the form of a hard spine.

Tendrillar: Stipule modifying into a tendril.

Ventral: Present on the ventral side of the petiole.

Vestigial: Very small, minute, or remnant.


Types of Leaf Venation


Venation: The pattern of veins on the surface of a leaf.

Parallel: When the veins run parallel to each other in the lamina of the leaf, the venation is called parallel, e.g., monocots. In this type of venation, if only one principal vein is present, it is called unicostate and if several principal veins are present, it is called multicostate.

Reticulate: When the pattern of the veins in the lamina of the leaf is like a network, e.g., dicots.

Unicostate and Multicostate: In both parallel and reticulate venations, if only one principal vein is present, it is called unicostate, and if several principal veins are present, it is called multicostate. In the multicostate types, if the veins run in a curved manner from the base of the blade to its apex, it is called convergent, and if the veins arise at the base of the leaf blade and then diverge from one another towards the leaf margin, it is called divergent.


Types of Inflorescence


Cymose: In this type, the growth of the main axis is checked soon by the development of a flower at the apex and the lateral axis below the terminal flower also ends in a flower, and thus its growth is also checked. In cymose inflorescence, the terminal flower is the oldest and the young flowers are present on the lower side. Helicoid, circinnus, rhipidium, dichasium, and polychasium are some examples of cymose.

Racemose: In this type, the main axis does not terminate into a flower, but it keeps on growing continually and gives off flowers laterally in acropetal succession. Here the youngest flower is present at the apex and the older flowers towards the base. Raceme, spike, spikelet, panicle, catkin, spadix, corymb, umbel, and capitulum or head are some of the examples of racemose.

Special Types: Cyathium, verticillaster, and hypanthodium are some special types of inflorescences.

Catkin: A spike-like, deciduous, elongate, inflorescence, with scaly bracts and unisexual, apetalous, sessile flowers.

Circinus: A modified helicoid cyme having short pedicels on the developed side.

Compound Corymb: A branched corymb having pedicellate flowers.

Compound Cyme: A branched cyme having pedicellate flowers.

Compound Umbel: A branched umbel having primary rays arising at a common point with a secondary umbel arising from the tip of the primary rays.

Corymb: A raceme whose flower stalks are longer than the upper ones, so the inflorescence has a flat top.

Cyathium: A cup-shaped involucre containing nectar-secreting glands, a centrally placed large female flower, and many male flowers.

Dichasium or Simple Cyme: Determinate, dichotomous inflorescence of pedicellate flowers having pedicels of equal length.

Glomerule: An indeterminate inflorescence having a dense cluster of sessile or subsessile flowers.

Head or Capitulum: A dense cluster of several sessile or subsessile flowers on a compound receptacle or torus.

Helicoid Cyme: Curved and unbranched inflorescence of pedicellate flowers having the branches only on one side.

Hypanthodium: An inflorescence having sessile flowers on a wall of a concave capitulum, opening by a small ostiole. Male flowers are situated near the periphery and female flowers in the center, e.g., Ficus

Panicle: Branched inflorescence with pedicellate flowers arranged in the form of a number of racemes.

Pleiochasium: It is a compound dichasium in which each dichasium has three lateral branches. It is also called polychasium or multiparous cyme.

Raceme: An indeterminate, unbranched inflorescence with a single axis and the flowers arranged along the main axis on pedicels.

Scorpioid Cyme: A zigzag cymose inflorescence that appears to coil like a scorpion’s tail. In this type, the branches develop alternately on the opposite sides of the rachis.

Secund: Flowers arranged only on one side of the rachis.

Solitary Axillary: Single-flowered; flower attached in the axis.

Solitary Terminal: Single-flowered; flower attached at the apex.

Spadix: A fleshy or thick, spike-like inflorescence with very small flowers usually enclosed in a spathe.

Spike: Elongate, unbranched. indeterminate inflorescence with sessile flowers.

Spikelet: A small spike, or the basic inflorescence unit of Cyperaceae and Gramineae.

Thyrse: A compact and compound panicle having an indeterminate main axis and laterally determinate axes.

Umbel: An inflorescence in which all the pedicels are of the same length and arise from the same point.

Umbellet: A secondary umbel in a compound umbel.

Verticillaster: Whorled dichasial cymes arranged at the nodes of an elongate axis, e.g., Labiatae.

Types of Inflorescences and Plant terms
Types of Inflorescences

Types and Parts of Flower


Accessory Whorls: Calyx and corolla.

Achlamydous: Without calyx and corolla.

Actinomorphic: Flowers with radial symmetry; or flowers, which can be bisected into similar halves along two or more planes.

Amorphic: Flowers without symmetry.

Androecium: All stamens of a flower.

Androgynophore: Stripe bearing both androphore and gynophore together.

Androphore: Elongated internodal part between corolla and androecium.

Anthophore: Elongated internodal part between calyx and corolla.

Bisexual or Hermaphrodite: Flowers having both the Sex Organs.

Bract: Modified leaf, which develops in the axil of the flower.

Bracteate: With bract.

Bracteolate: With bracteole.

Bracteole: Small leaf is borne on the pedicel of flowers.

Calyx: Whorl of sepals.

Carpel: A unit of the gynoecium; or floral organ that bears ovules.

Complete: Flowers having all the four floral whorls, i.e., sepals, petals, androecium, and gynoecium.

Corolla: Whorl of petals.

Dimerous, Trimerous, Tetramerous, and Pentamerous: Flowers in which various floral parts are arranged in groups of two, three, four, and five, are called dimerous, trimerous, tetramerous, and pentamerous, respectively.

Ebracteate: Without bracts.

Epicalyx: Leaves resembling sepals below the true calyx.

Epigynous: Flowers with inferior ovary; or those having the floral parts situated above the ovary.

Essential Whorls: Androecium and gynoecium.

Gynoecium or pistil: Group of carpels of the flower.

Gynophore: Elongated axis between androecium and gynoecium.

Haplomorphic: Petals or tepals colored.

Hypanthium: Fused basal portion of sepals, petals, or stamens around the ovary.

Hypogynous: Flowers with superior ovary; or those having the floral parts situated below the ovary.

Monochlamydous: Flowers with only one whorl.

Monoecious: Having separate male and female flowers on the same individual.

Pedicel: The stalk of the flower.

Pedicellate: With pedicel.

Perianth: When there is no differentiation of calyx and corolla.

Perigynous: Flowers with half-inferior ovary; or those having floral parts situated around the ovary.

Petal: Individual unit of the corolla.

Pleomorphic Actinomorphic flowers with a number of reduced parts.

Polyphore: A receptacle having several distinct carpels.

Receptacle. Thalamus or Torus: Tip of the axis bearing floral appendages.

Sepal: Individual unit of the calyx.

Sessile: Without stalk.

Stamen: Individual unit of androecium.

Tepal: Individual unit of the perianth.

Unisexual: Flower with only one sex, i.e. either male or female.

Zygomorphic: Flowers with bilateral symmetry; or flowers which can be bisected into similar halves in only one plane; or flowers with parts usually irregular and reduced in number.


Types of Calyx


Anterior Lobes: Abaxial lobes; or lobes that remain away from the axis.

Aposepalous: With separate sepals.

Asepatous: Without sepals.

Bilabiate: Consisting of two lips.

Caducous: Sepals, which wither soon.

Campanulate: Bell-shaped.

Chorisepalous: With separate sepals.

Cupulate: Cup-like.

Dorsal Side: Abaxial, or back, or lower side of the sepals.

Fringed: Modified margin of sepals or petals.

Gamosepalous: Fused sepals.

Infundibuliform: Funnel-shaped.

Pappus: Reduced, scaly, or hairy calyx of Asteraceae.

Persistent: Sepals, which persist even in the fruit.

Petaloid: Coloured sepals, except green.

Polysepalous: When sepals are free.

Posterior Lobe: Adaxial lobe; or lobe that remains next to the axis.

Sepal: A unit of the calyx.

Spurred: When one or more sepals are produced into a spur.

Synsepalous: – With fused sepals.

Tubular: Like a tube; cylindrical.

Ventral Side: Upper or lop side of sepal or petal.


Types of Aestivation


Aestivation: The way in which sepals and petals are arranged in the bud condition.

Imbricate Aestivation: Out of the five sepals or petals, one external, one internal, and the other three are partly external and partly internal.

Quincuncial Aestivation: Out of the live sepals or petals, two external, two internal, and the remaining one is partly external and partly internal.

Twisted Aestivation: When margins of each part are overlapped regularly, i.e. one edge of the sepal or petal is overlapped by the preceding part.

Valvate Aestivation: When the sepals or petals meet edge to edge without overlapping each other.

Vexillary: Aestivation out of the five sepals or petals the posterior one is the largest and covers the two lateral sepals or petals, and the latter in turn overlap the two smallest and anterior sepals or petals, e.g., Papilionaceae.


Types of Corolla


Apetalous: Without petals.

Apopetalous: Having separate petals.

Carina: Keel, or two fused petals of a papilionaceous flower.

Choripetalous: Apopetalous.

Gamopetalous: With fused petals.

Lodicule: Scale-like perianth part of Gramineae.

Petal: An individual unit of the corolla.

Polypetalous: With free petals.

Standard or Vexillum: Wider petal in a papilionaceous flower.

Sympetalous: With fused petals.

Wing: Lateral petals, e.g., Fabaceae.

Bilabiate or Bilipped: Zygomorphic, gamopetalous corolla with two unequal lips or divisions.

Calcarate: Spurred corolla.

Campanulate: Bell-shaped.

Carinate: Keeled.

Caryophyllaceous: When all the five petals of the corolla are clawed and have their limbs spreading out.

Cruciate or Cruciform: All the four petals are arranged in the form of a cross e.g., Cruciferae.

Infundibuliform: Funnel-shaped.

Ligulate: Zygomorphic; gamopetalous, strap-shaped corolla with a short narrow tube and the strap-like upper portion.

Papilionaceous or Butterfly-like: When five petals of the corolla are arranged in a butterfly-like shape. It consists of a posterior largest vexillum, two lateral wings, and two posterior fused petals called a keel, e.g., Papilionaceae.

Personate: It is also a bilabiate corolla but here the corolla mouth is closed because two lips are very close to one another.

Rosaceous: When five or more petals are spreading like those of rose; Rosaceae.

Rotate: Wheel-shaped gamopetalous corolla having narrow corolla tube, and the limbs of petals are at the right angle to the lobe.

Salverform: Trumpet-shaped.

Tubular: Cylindrical; petals fused to form a tube.

Urceolate: Urn or pitcher-shaped.


Types of Perianth


Gamotepalous: With fused tepals.

Lodicule: Scale like perianth part of Gramineae.

Perianth: Collective term applied for calyx and corolla.

Petaloid: Resembling with petals.

Polypetalous: With free tepals.

Sepaloid: Resembling with sepals.

Tepal: Individual unit of the perianth.


Types of Androecium


Adnate: When filament runs throughout the entire length of the anther from the base to the top.

Allagostemonous: Condition in which stamens are attached to petals and torus alternately.

Alternipetalous: Stamens present alternately with the petals.

Anther: Pollen-bearing portion of the stamen.

Antipetalous: Stamens opposite to petals.

Antiphyllous: Stamens opposite to tepals.

Antisepalous Stamens opposite to sepals.

Apostemonous: With separate stamens.

Appendicular: Stamen with a modified or protruding connective.

Basifixed: Filament attached with the base of the anther lobe.

Connective: Filament extension of the anther between thecae.

Diadelphous: With the filaments of stamens united or connate in two groups with their anthers being free.

Diandrous: Flowers with two stamens.

Didymous: With stamens in two equal pairs.

Didynamous: When two out of the four stamens are larger and the remaining two are smaller in Size

Diplostemonous: When stamens arc arranged in two whorls, outer whorl opposite to sepals, inner whorl opposite to petals.

Dorsifixed: When the filament is attached on the dorsal side of the anther lobes

Epipetalous: When the stamens remain attached to the petals.

Episepalous: When the stamens remain attached to the sepals.

Extrose: Stamen, which dehisces longitudinally outward.

Filament: Stalk of the stamen.

Gynandrous: When stamens are fused with gynoecium.

Introse: Stamen, which dehisces longitudinally inward.

Laminar: When stamens are leaflike with no distinct anther and filament.

Latrose: Stamen, which dehisces longitudinally and laterally.

Locule: Chamber of an anther.

Monadelphous: When filaments of one group of stamens are fused but their anthers are free.

Monandrous: Flower with one stamen.

Obdiplostemonous: When the stamens are arranged in two whorls, of which the outer whorl of stamens being opposite to petals.

Petaloid: Stamens resembling with petals, showing no distinction between anther and filament.

Petalostemonous: With filaments of stamens fused to petals with free anthers.

Pollen grain: Young male gametophyte.

Pollen sac: Male sporangium.

Polyadelphous: When filaments are united, in several groups with their anthers remaining free.

Polyandrous: With several free stamens.

Poricidal: Dehiscing through a pore at the theca apex.

Stamen: Pollen-bearing floral organ of angiosperms.

Staminode: Sterile stamen with reduced anthers.

Synandrous: With anthers as well as their filaments being united in the form of one group.

Syngenesious: With fused anthers and free filaments.

Tetrandrous: Flowers with four stamens.

Tetradynamous: Two out of a total of six stamens are short while the remaining four are long.

Theca: Half of the portion of anther containing two pollen sacs.

Triandrous: Flowers with three stamens.

Tridynamous: Stamens arranged in two equal groups of three.

Valvular: When the stamen dehisces through a pore covered by a flap of tissue.

Versatile: Dorsifixed but it appears as if the anther is swinging freely on the filament.


Types of Gynoecium


Apocarpous: With free or separate carpels.

Astylocarpellous: Without a stipe and a style.

Astylocarpepodic: With a stipe and without a style.

Astylous: Without any distinct style.

Carpel: Organ of the flower that bears ovules.

Epigynous: The condition in which the sepals, petals, and androecium are attached to the floral tube above the ovary.

Funiculus: The stalk with which the ovule is attached to the placenta.

Geniculate Style: The style which bents abruptly.

Gynobasic Style: The style, which is attached at the base of the ovary in central depression.

Heterostylous: With styles of different shapes or lengths.

Homostylous: With styles of the same shapes or lengths.

Hypogynous: The condition in which sepals, petals, and androecium are attached to the floral tube below the ovary.

Inferior Ovary: The ovary in the epigynous condition.

Locule: The cavity of the ovary.

Monocarpellary to Polycarpellary: With one to several carpels; bicarpellary if two carpels are present, tricarpellary if three carpels are present, and tetra and pentacarpellary if four and five carpels are present.

Ovary: Ovule-bearing part of the gynoecium.

Ovule: Young seed made up of nucellus and integuments.

Parts of a Carpel: Funiculus, locule, ovary, ovule, placenta, stigma, style.

Parts of Gynoecium: Carpel, locule. ovary, ovule, placenta, stigma, style.

Parts of Ovule: Chalaza, embryo sac, integuments, micropyle, nucellus, raphe.

Perigynous: The condition in which the sepals, petals, and androecium arc are attached to the floral tube around the ovary.

Pisitilode: A sterile carpel.

Placenta: Ovule-bearing region of the wall of the ovary.

Raphe: A Part of an ovule present in the form of a longitudinal ridge on its outer integument.

Replum: False septum.

Semicarpous: With fused ovaries of adjacent carpels and their freestyles and stigmas.

Semi-inferior: The position of the ovary in the perigynous condition.

Stigma: Uppermost, pollen-receptive organ of gynoecium.

Stipe: Stalk of the gynoecium.

Style: Long portion of gynoecium between ovary and stigma.

Stylocarpellous: Carpel without a stipe and with a style.

Stytocarpepodic: With a stipe and a style.

Stylodious: With single free carpel.

Superior: The position of the ovary in the hypogynous condition.

Syncarpous: With fused carpels.

Synovarious: The condition when the ovaries of adjacent carpels are fused white their styles and stigmas separate.

Synstytovarious: The condition when the ovaries and styles of adjacent carpels are fused while their stigmas separate.

Terete: Cylindrical and elongate.

Unicarpellous: Stylodious

Unilocular to Multilocular: Ovary with one chamber or locule is called unilocular, with two chambers is called bilocular, with three and four chambers are called trilocular and tetralocular, and with many locules is called Multilocular (Fig. 14).


Types Of Stigma


Capitate: Like a cap or head.

Clavate: Club-shaped.

Crested: Possessing a terminal tuft or ridge.

Dccurrent: Long and extending downward.

Diffuse: Spread over a wide surface.

Discoid: Like a disc

Fimbriate: Fringed.

Lineate: In the form of small lines.

Lobed: Divided into some lobes.

Plumose: Like a feather.

Terete: Elongate and cylindrical.


Types of Placentation


Axile: The placentae develop along the central axis in a compound ovary with septa. It occurs in a bilocular to the multilocular ovary.

Basal: The placenta develops at the base of the ovary, i.e., directly on the thalamus. It occurs in a unilocular ovary.

Free Central: The placenta develops along the central axis in a compound ovary without septa. It occurs in the unilocular ovary.

Laminar, or Laminate, or Superficial: The placenta develops, over the inner surface of the ovary wall. It occurs in a multicarpellary ovary.

Marginal: The placenta develops along the margin of the simple ovary. It occurs in the monocarpellary and unilocular ovaries.

Parietal: The placentae develop on the wall or intruding portions of a compound ovary. It occurs in bicarpellary to multicarpellary but unilocular ovary.

Pendulous or Apical: The placenta develops at the top of the ovary and the ovules remain suspended in a pendulous manner.


Types of Fruit


Achene: Developing from a monocarpellary superior ovary, the achene is a one-seeded, dry, indehiscent, simple fruit having its seed attached to the fruit wall only at one point, e.g., Mirabilis, Clematis.

Amphisarca: A fleshy simple berry-like fruit with a woody rind, e.g., Lagenaria.

Balausia: A simple, dry, many-seeded, and many-loculed indehiscent fruit with a tough pericarp, e.g., Punica.

Berry: Fleshy simple fruit with succulent pericarp, e.g., tomato, banana, Vitis

Bibacca: A multiple types of fruit formed as a fused double berry, e.g., Lonicera.

Cacervulus: A dry schizocarpic fruit, which develops from bi-to multicarpellary, syncarpous, superior ovary with many locules, e.g., Labiatae.

Calybium: A hard, unichambered dry indehiscent fruit derived from an inferior ovary, e.g., Quercus.

Capsule: A dry dehiscent fruit derived from a bi to multicarpellary superior or inferior ovary, e.g., Papaver.

Caryopsis: A dry indehiscent fruit derived from the monocarpellary ovary in which pericarp is inseparably fused with testa, e.g., Gramineae.

Cremocarp: A dry schizocarpic fruit derived from bicarpellary, syncarpous, inferior ovary with one ovule in each locule. It dehisces from two indehiscent, single-seeded mericarps attached with carpophore, e.g., Umbelliferae.

Cypsela: A dry indehiscent achene type of fruit derived from unilocular, inferior ovary, e.g., Helianthus.

Drupe: A fleshy fruit with a stony endocarp and edible mesocarp, e.g., mango, Prunus.

Druplet: A small drupe, e.g., Rubus.

Etaerio of Achenes: Also called achenecetum. It is an aggregation of achenes, e.g., Ranunculus. .

Etaerio of Berries: Also called baccacetum. It is an aggregation of berries. e.g., Artabotrys.

Etaerio of Drupes: Also called drupecetum, it is an aggregation of drupes. E.g., Rubus.

Etaerio of Follicles: Also called follicetum, it is an aggregation of follicles, e.g., Delphinium.

Etaerio of Samaras: Also called samaracetum, it is an aggregation of samaras, e.g., Liriodendron.

Follicle: A dry, dehiscent fruit derived from a monocarpellary, superior ovary, and dehisces only along one suture, e.g., Delphinium.

Hesperidium: A fleshy, thick-skinned berry with hard and leathery pericarp. It is derived from a polycarpellary, multilocular, superior ovary. The bulk of this fruit is derived from glandular hairs, e.g., Citrus.

Legume: A dry dehiscent fruit derived from the monocarpellary, superior ovary with marginal Placentation. It dehisces along two sutures, e.g., Pisum.

Lomentum: A dry dehiscent legume that separates transversely between seed sections, e.g., Acacia.

Nut: A dry, indehiscent, one-seeded fruit with a hard pericarp. It is derived from the unilocular ovary, e.g., Anacardium.

Nutlet: A small nut.

Pepo: A berry with a leathery nonseptate rind, developing from tricarpellary, syncarpous, inferior ovary with parietal placentation, e.g., Cucurbitaceae.

Pome: A fleshy fruit surrounded by the fleshy thalamus and developing from a two or more-celled, syncarpous, inferior ovary, e.g., apple.

Pyrene: Fleshy fruit with each seed covered by a bony endocarp, e.g., Ilex.

Regma: Dry, schizocarpic fruit derived from tricarpellary, syncarpous, superior, trilocular ovary, and bears many spinous tubercles, e.g., Ricinus.

Samara: Dry, indehiscent simple fruit derived from bicarpellary, syncarpous ovary. Its pericarp is winged, e.g., Elm.

Silicula: Dry, dehiscent fruit derived from two or more carpels. It dehisces along two sutures and leaves a persistent partition after dehiscence. It is as broad as, or even broader, than long, e.g., Iberis.

Siliqua: Dry, dehiscent fruit derived from bicarpellary, syncarpous ovary with parietal placentation and a false septum. It is longer than broad. e.g., Brassica.

Sorosis: A multiple fruit developing from the spadix or spike in which the flowers usually fuse by their succulent sepals, and axis bearing them becomes woody or fleshy forming a compact mass, e.g., pineapple.

Syconus: A multiple fruits derived from hypanthodium type of inflorescence. Here the achenes develop on the inside of a hollowed-out fleshy receptacle, e.g., Ficus.

Utricle: Dry, indehiscent, small, bladder-like, one-seeded fruit, e.g., Chenopodium.

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