Aquaponics Based Urban Farming Development Strategy To Enhance Food Security

Less waste in the activity of the aquaponics system implemented most as an innovative hobby that has given another benefit such as food security and sovereignty achievement at least by themselves, in addition to economically and health of the family in the household as well. This research aimed to know food security created by aquaponics in urban agriculture development strategy. The research method used SWOT and IE Matric Analysis.

The result showed that there are some priority strategies such as upgrade any skill and knowledge deal with aquaponics, socialize system benefit, increase aquaponics yield consumption and consumer expendable, implement the food health by aquaponics system, upgrade smart agribusiness capacity to enhance distribution access, and procure lower start-up cost.

Introduction

SDGs initiated by United Nations born 17 goals for the agenda until 2030 that legalize in September 2015 in New York[1]. Primarily related to the first and second goal for instance end poverty whatever, wherever and zero hunger, reach food security, improve nutritious food and also support/promote sustainable agriculture. For those SDGs is being in mutual accord to Indonesian Development Programs which are going through.

The first human being the primary need and become the fundamental right as well are the need deal with food[2 [3]Anyway, it is a critical role to keep their availability and security in sustainable. Food, either as the primary need or as a human right plays an essential role in life, human sustainability, and also included nation stability as well. It is stronger feelings that currently, almost become practical mindset due to those all food we need can get by shop even though for sake millennial generation, they hardly recognize the performance of plant itself or how to plant, how to sow and ripe or harvesting.

Therefore,[4] explained the people prefer to cultivation making is getting taper off, so, it needed some creativity to build interest and conscious thought that consumed food initially root of agricultural activity hence [3]the problem was getting more complicated due to high population growth, lands are getting less and taper off too but the contrast to food demand. Without procurement and creativity, we always meet the need by import, and then we depend on others. Unfortunately, whenever we want to cultivate plants activity, needed land, whenever we want to plant fish.

As the consequence, we need twice land for both two kinds of plants and fish. Even though in the urban area which lands is limited due to the existence of building the office, estate, market, and needed pools and hardly left of the land. Fast population growth concomitant with consumer demand for food contrast to taper off the land had and food production.

Creativity in agribusiness is the key to meet food problems. Hence the limited space and resources in urban, urban farming cultivation, for now, is a big deal, and deal with a food product of fish and vegetables [5][6][7]. Awareness toward cultivation at urban was background by needed of healthy life so, their food need prefer to organic food.

Therefore the organic farming system was fostered to meet the needs mentioned. The lesson from that is developed organics based farming system regarding combine both of two systems Hydroponic and aquaculture called aquaponics[8][7]. Aquaponics is global as a viable shape of agricultural alternative[9] financially as well [10]Explained that Net-Benefit-Cost Ratio at the range 1: 30 until 1: 100 even though in high relative investment for the fish component.

Aquaponics technology is divided into two parts such as aquaculture and plant-culture technology at once. For those technology water and fish secretion waste could be used as fertilizer medium on the plant by aquaculture circulation and hydroponics technology[11] so, [12]called aquaponics system and achieved significant popularity as landless organic agriculture deal with produce fruits and vegetables coincide with aquaculture efficiently.

Aquaponics was the urban farming technique that getting popular in the city that could accommodate the need while yielding high-quality fresh food for people in the city for a healthy life[13][14]. According to[13], this system was an innovative and revolutionary farming method those integrated plants and fish at once and also effective system cost.

They used the land yard or proof by doing a hobby to become an urban farmer. [15][16] Said that from these activities appeared to overcome food supply alternative for family, reduce family spends for home-based kitchen event according to[17] and [6] could give benefit commercially not only locally but also globally. Aquaponics system could be set up everywhere[18] by using yard and roof in house or office by doing hobby to be city farmer,[15] and[16] from this activity would become an alternative solution to provide food for the family, save the money for kitchen need[19].

Furthermore, maintain a clean environment from pollution were according to [1] the city recently faced many environmental problems included the issues air and water quality, lack suitable of green area, heat capture excess, polluted heat water flowing, and less ecological biodiversity. Unfortunately, people were ignoring the potencies of urban agriculture to improve ecological sustainability in the city.

This writing aimed to study the transformation of urban agriculture especially aquaponics activity. This matter also meant that we make real regarding SDGs initiated by the [1]that had 17 goals followed by 169 targets. Number 1 was to end poverty in all its forms everywhere and integrated to number 2 was to end hunger, achieve food security and improve nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture.[20]emphasized that food sovereignty throughout the aquaponics system has a great potential to address insecurity of food and nutrition.

Discussion

Internal Factor Analysis

Describe three integrated aspects that could not be separated in agriculture sustainability development in the city that

  1. Social, agriculture in the center of the city is an achievement of sustainable development so having a positive impact on the growth of the city and also as science and knowledge resources and cultural sustainability.
  2. Economically, implementation of aquaponics could optimize conservative values for instance using agriculture, fisheries, and livestock production as consumed row food[15] and distributed to people in the center of the city.
  3. Environmentally, this idea was concerning environmental hit as long as implementation. Implemented this activity also become one of striving to deal with being green in the center of the city.

Social and economic lead to equitable; Social and environmental lead to bearable; Economic and environment lead to viable. Social, economic, and environmental lead to sustainability. But some included technology and policy.

Strength

Aquaponics could provide food from home for the family had the strength such like high curiosity human resources and loved the challenge all about cultivation or farming; there at least were two commodities harvested fish and plant either vegetable or fruit[23][10][24][9][6][25]. The production of aquaponics is 100% organic that needed most of the people who live a healthy lifestyle[26].

Aquaponics system is more efficient due to production input especially land and nutrition[18][9][15] and the business pattern itself carried out intensively so that could get result high in quantity and quality[15][14][13][23][8].

Aquaponics system is less or no need soil medium and land to grow the plant thus could become portable where ever want to set. It would be different if there were community movements to plant vegetables, fruit, and fish in each home. Public food needs could be met by family ownself. Food security and sovereignty for household scale was created. Sum-score by 2.67.

Weakness

Stated that aquaponics activity also has the weakness, such as high start-up cost than conventional (land-used) activity. The farmer had to learn first because it is the new system in the narrow land even landless, production was still unstable, less promotion, and our mindset was still a negative stigma due to failure. There are almost still only hobby activities then counted the balance rarely. The other weakness was still needed daily management to monitor productivity because they were still lazy to notice. Sum-score of weakness score by 0.22.

Analysis of External Factor

Fundamentally, food sovereignty will lift the farmer in a marginal position. Aquaponics deal with planting fruit, vegetable, and fish become solution lead to food vulnerable and maintain water quality at once[27].

The approach is more concerned with local culture and wisdom, therefore the farmer could plant their variety like most by their way, cooking by their taste because of place the high esteem in diversification as the local culture as to be. Food security supported toward agriculture patterns family-based where they plant by their selves at their land (land to mouth [28]The family farming that leads to food security was one of the ways to achieve food sovereignty and the strategy to end poverty and also was the human right[29].

Nevertheless, it needed the novelty that would distinguish as an integrated innovation in one agribusiness system[4 [11] stated that application and set in the different potential to install technology, sustainable impact to consider partially and toward complexity in the market, value chain, community, urban-rural infrastructure and policy setting, further research acquisition.

Opportunity

The respect toward sustainable agriculture is principal by biofiltration wastewater from the pool by the plant[30] and the possibility to increase economic efficiency by organic vegetable product nutritious food.

Aquaponics was an innovative food production system, and revolutionary as well[13]system were both different science disciplines aquaculture and hydroponics integrated systematically. Those were the sustainable method whose trend to go green and go organic that eco-friendly[31]by combined recirculatory and biofilter[27].

It had a big opportunity due to the lifestyle change to be healthier life because absolutely consisted of 100% organic and suitable for a healthy lifestyle. Product image made people were getting more conscious of healthy life and consume fresh organic vegetables, fruit, and fish on the daily menu[26].

Even though urban farming activity when carried out more seriously could meet food needs in an urban area so could minimize food risks such as perishable, broken along transportation, and technical troubles.[18]Stated that the smart city could make aquaponics as innovative urban.

The environment surrounding would be comfortable, cold and created microclimate could reduce carbon emission, contribute to city ecosystem health. It could make more aesthetical and reduced runoff from rainfall.

In addition, green plants lead to be available fresh cool weather for the community and reduced heat island effect rate by carbon fixation in photosynthesis[26]. A score of opportunity was achieved at 3.05.

Threats

Human resources, played an important role in both weaknesses and threats because aquaponic is a modified revitalization and new insight, thereby feared to try. Similar product competition but non-organic had lower price whereas the product performance was likely.

The consumer was getting critical to choose and decide the product instead[17]. Indonesia generally had an unstable economic condition that influenced product price fluctuation and enables to increase production cost.

The other threats according to[23][12] were aquaponics system needed circulation fluency and continuously in need of nitrogen transformation, so it needed electricity access. Sum-score of threats 0.08.

Analysis of Matrix Internal-External (IE)

The score of IFE Aquaponics provide food from home was 2.67 and the score of EFE was 3.05. Both of those scores interpreted the position of aquaponic at quadrant IV internal, external matrix. These scores meant at the recent time that opportunities and threats in external factors were stronger than the strength and weaknesses in internal factors.

The forward strategies were integration and intensive strategy. Integration strategy was such as make some partnership, collaboration, the product could be developed to the city where the market place in order the consumer got product easier.

Whereas backward strategy such the way aquaponics could set anywhere cite for locations, supervising and empowering urban farmer to increase production and distribution evenly. Intensive strategy carried out by used stakeholder, friend, kin, neighbor, and market to aquaponics product to live healthier.

Foster innovation the various and attractive products and make the smart market based on market penetration and house consumption.

SWOT Matrics Analysis

The formulation was grouped to become strength – weakness, strength opportunity, strength – threats, and weakness – threats strategies. Strategy W – O considered through having the advantage of IT capacity that expected to be able to be start-up cost cheaper. Establishing aquaponics movement and training.

Strategy S – O is considered through the raising of understanding about aquaponics, increasing production and consumption from our own home. Strategy S – T was to become an exciting and yielding activity and then could stabilize economically buy aquaponics system way.

Whereas strategy W – T was to minimize weakness and avoid threats by doing foster innovation and making partnerships among research institutions, academicians, practicians, nongovernmental organizations.

Gaining the best result leads to superior, viable, and vigorous seed on faced weather and climate change and also more adaptive, develop a smart city, smart urban farming and motivate to sustain for next generation.

Conclusions

Aquaponics had a decent prospect to achieve sovereignty in healthy food characterized organic property within that foster to a healthy lifestyle. The strategy of priority by enhancing insight and understanding due to aquaponics related to food sovereignty, production, food from our own home, understanding, and implementation how important food security and healthy food are, and then increasing economic stability and capacity in Technology of Informatics or digital instruments and cheap start-up cost and establish smart urban farming.

Source: Sundari, R. S., Arshad, A., Sulistyowati, L., Noor, T. I., & Setiawan, I. (2021, February). Enhancing Food Security throughout Aquaponicsin Urban Farming Development Strategy. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 1764, No. 1, p. 012209). IOP Publishing.

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