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Mustard plant

by Lynette Abbott
Published: Last Updated on
mustard plant

The mustard plant is a member of the cruciferous family of vegetables, which also includes broccoli, cabbage, and kale. It is an annual plant that grows to a height of about 2-3 feet and produces small yellow or white flowers. Mustard seeds are used to make mustard, a condiment that is widely popular around the world.

Mustard plants are native to the Mediterranean region and have been cultivated for thousands of years for their seeds, which are rich in oil and have a pungent flavor. The leaves of the mustard plant can also be eaten and have a spicy, mustard-like flavor. Mustard plants are easy to grow and can be grown in a variety of soils and climates. They are often grown for their seeds, which are harvested when the plant is fully mature.

Etymology

The scientific name for the mustard plant is Brassica juncea. The word “mustard” comes from the Latin word “mustum,” which means “must,” or young, unfermented wine. This is because mustard seeds were often ground and mixed with must to make a condiment. The word “juncea” comes from the Latin word “juncus,” which means “rush,” and refers to the plant’s rush-like leaves.

Global statistics about mustard plant

According to data from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, the top five producers of mustard seed in the world are Canada, India, China, the United States, and the Russian Federation. In 2020, these five countries accounted for around 75% of the world’s total mustard seed production. Here is a breakdown of mustard seed production in these top five countries in 2020:

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  • Canada: 2,050,000 metric tons
  • India: 1,800,000 metric tons
  • China: 1,600,000 metric tons
  • United States: 1,400,000 metric tons
  • Russian Federation: 1,200,000 metric tons
  • Ukraine: 825,000 metric tons
  • Pakistan: 800,000 metric tons
  • Australia: 650,000 metric tons
  • France: 600,000 metric tons
  • Turkey: 550,000 metric tons

Botanical classification of mustard plant

Here is the botanical classification of the mustard plant:

    • Kingdom: Plantae (plants)
    • Subkingdom: Tracheobionta (vascular plants)
    • Superdivision: Spermatophyta (seed plants)
    • Division: Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)
    • Class: Magnoliopsida (dicotyledons)
    • Subclass: Dilleniidae
    • Order: Capparales
    • Family: Brassicaceae (cabbage family)
    • Genus: Brassica
    • Species: Brassica juncea

Botanical description of mustard plant

Mustard is indeed a cool-season crop and is typically grown in the spring or fall when temperatures are cooler. It is hardy and can tolerate cooler temperatures, but the seeds will not germinate well if they are planted too early, as the soil needs to be warm enough for them to grow. Planting the seeds on the average date of last frost is a good way to ensure that the soil is warm enough for the seeds to germinate. The detailed botanical description of mustard plant is:

1. Roots: The mustard plant has a taproot that can grow up to 1.5 meters (5 feet) in length, and a shorter, lateral root system. The roots are responsible for absorbing water and nutrients from the soil and anchoring the plant in the ground.

Botanical description of mustard plant

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2. Stem: The stem of the mustard plant is upright and branched, and typically grows to a height of 30-100 cm (12-39 inches). It is responsible for supporting the plant and transporting water, nutrients, and sugars throughout the plant.

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3. Leaves: The mustard plant has alternate, oblong to lanceolate leaves that are 2-10 cm (0.8-4 inches) long and 1-4 cm (0.4-1.6 inches) wide. The leaves are dark green in color and have wavy or serrated edges. They are responsible for photosynthesis, the process by which the plant converts sunlight into energy.

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4. Flowers: The mustard plant produces small, yellow flowers that are about 2 cm (0.8 inches) in diameter. The flowers are arranged in clusters on the upper part of the plant and are pollinated by bees and other insects.

5. Seeds: The mustard plant produces small, triangular seeds that are about 1.5-2 mm (0.06-0.08 inches) in length. The seeds are encased in a hard, shiny seed coat and are typically yellow or brown in color. They are grown for their high oil and protein content and are used to make mustard condiment and oil. Mustard seeds are rich in nutrients and have a number of potential health benefits. They are a good source of protein, fiber, and various vitamins and minerals, including magnesium, phosphorus, and selenium. Mustard seeds may also have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

History of mustard plant

The exact history of the domestication of mustard is not well documented, but it is believed to have been cultivated for food and medicinal purposes for at least 3,000 years. Mustard seeds were found in ancient Egyptian tombs, and mustard is mentioned in the Old Testament of the Bible as a condiment and a remedy for various ailments.

The mustard plant is believed to have evolved from the wild mustard plant (Brassica rapa), which is native to Europe and Asia. The wild mustard plant is a weed that grows in fields, roadsides, and other disturbed areas, and it has a long history of use as a food and medicinal plant.

Mustard has been widely cultivated throughout the world, and it has played an important role in many cultures and cuisines. In ancient Rome, mustard was used as a condiment and a cooking ingredient, and it was also believed to have medicinal properties. In the Middle Ages, mustard was a popular condiment in Europe, and it was also used to make mustard plaster, a poultice used to treat respiratory problems.

Genetics of mustard plant

The mustard plant is an amphidiploid plant, meaning that it has two copies of each chromosome, for a total of 18 chromosome pairs (2n = 4× = 36; genome AABB). It has a relatively small genome, which has been found to contain around 22,000 protein-coding genes, as well as many non-coding genes and regulatory elements.

The genome of the mustard plant has been sequenced, and it is estimated to be around 360 megabases in size. This information has been used to identify key genes that are involved in important traits such as the production of mustard seeds and oil, as well as disease resistance and stress tolerance.

Genetics of mustard plant

Genetic studies of the mustard plant have helped to improve our understanding of the plant’s biology and have led to the development of improved varieties through plant breeding and genetic modification techniques. There have been many achievements in the genetic improvement of the mustard plant over the years. For example, plant breeders have developed mustard varieties that are more resistant to diseases, pests, and environmental stresses, which can result in higher yields and better crop quality. Additionally, genetic modification techniques have been used to produce mustard plants with improved traits such as increased seed oil content or enhanced resistance to herbicides.

There is a large body of scientific evidence that supports the safety and effectiveness of genetically modified (GM) mustard plants. For example, several GM mustard varieties have been extensively tested and found to be safe for human consumption and the environment, and they have been approved for cultivation and use in several countries.

Cultivation and production technology of mustard plant

Mustard plants (Brassica juncea) are annual or biennial herbaceous plants that are grown for their seeds, which are used to make mustard condiment and oil. Mustard plants are sown from seeds, which are typically sown directly in the ground or started in seedlings and transplanted later. Here is information about the cultivation and production of mustard plants:

1. Choose the right location: Mustard plants grow best in well-draining soil with a pH between 6.0 and 7.0. They prefer full sun, but they can tolerate partial shade. Choose a location that has good air circulation to help prevent fungal diseases.

2. Prepare the soil: Before planting, loosen the soil to a depth of about 20 cm (8 inches) and remove any weeds or debris. If necessary, add compost or well-rotted manure to improve the soil structure and fertility.

3. Determine the seed rate: The seed rate will depend on the variety of mustard you are planting and the size of the seeds. As a general rule, use a seed rate of about 2-3 g per square meter (0.7-1 oz per square yard) for small seeds and 5-10 g per square meter (1.8-3.5 oz per square yard) for larger seeds.

Cultivation and production technology of mustard plant

4. Plant the seeds: Plant the seeds at a depth of about 1 cm (0.4 inches) and water them well. Depending on the variety, mustard seeds can be sown directly in the ground or started in seedlings and transplanted later. For direct sowing, plant the seeds in rows spaced about 20 cm (8 inches) apart, and thin the seedlings to a spacing of about 15 cm (6 inches) when they are about 5 cm (2 inches) tall.

5. Water and fertilize: Water the plants regularly, keeping the soil moist but not waterlogged. Fertilize the plants with a balanced fertilize every 2-4 weeks.

6. Monitor for pests and diseases: Watch for pests such as aphids and caterpillars, and treat them with an appropriate insecticide if necessary. Monitor for diseases such as clubroot and black leg, and use appropriate control measures if necessary.

7. Harvest the crops: The harvesting time will depend on the variety of mustard you are growing. Most mustard plants are typically ready to harvest in about 90-120 days. To harvest the seeds, wait until the seed pods have turned brown and dry, and then cut the plants and hang them upside down in a well-ventilated area to allow the seeds to fully mature. When the seeds are fully mature, they will easily fall out of the pods. You can then collect the seeds and store them in an airtight container until you are ready to use them.

Stages of growth of mustard plant

There are several varieties of mustard plants, and the maturity time will depend on the variety. Yellow mustard varieties usually mature in 80 to 85 days, while brown and oriental varieties typically require 90 to 95 days to mature. It’s important to choose the right variety for your growing region and the time of year you plan to plant the seeds. Here is some additional information about the stages of growth of mustard plants:

Germination

Mustard seeds will germinate within 5-7 days if they are sown in moist soil at a temperature of around 15-20°C (59-68°F). As the seeds germinate, they will produce a small, pale green shoot with two cotyledon leaves. The cotyledon leaves are the first true leaves of the plant and are responsible for photosynthesis and the production of energy for the seedling. Germination can be faster or slower depending on the temperature and moisture conditions.

Stages of growth

Seedling stage

During the seedling stage, the mustard plants will grow rapidly, producing a set of true leaves and developing a strong root system. The true leaves are larger and more deeply lobed than the cotyledon leaves, and they are responsible for the majority of photosynthesis in the plant. This stage typically lasts for about 3-4 weeks.

Vegetative growth stage

During the vegetative growth stage, the mustard plants will continue to grow and produce new leaves and stems. The leaves will become larger and more deeply lobed, and the plants will start to produce lateral branches. This stage typically lasts for about 8-12 weeks, depending on the variety and the growing conditions. The temperature and moisture conditions during this stage will have a significant impact on the growth of the plants.

Reproductive growth stage

During the reproductive growth stage, the mustard plants will start to produce flowers, which will eventually develop into seed pods. The flowers are small and yellow, and they are borne on the terminal ends of the branches. This stage typically lasts for about 4-6 weeks, depending on the variety and the growing conditions. The temperature and moisture conditions during this stage will also have an impact on the development of the flowers and seeds.

Maturity

When the mustard plants reach maturity, the seeds will be fully developed and the seed pods will turn brown and dry. The mustard plants can then be harvested and the seeds can be collected. The seeds can be used to make mustard condiment or oil, or they can be used as a spice in cooking. The maturity of the mustard plants will depend on the variety, the growing conditions, and the time of year in which they were sown.

Diseases, pests, and weeds of mustard plant

Mustard plants can be affected by a variety of diseases, pests, and weeds. Some of the most common problems that can affect mustard plants include:

Diseases

1. Blackleg: Blackleg is a bacterial disease that affects mustard plants and other cruciferous crops. It is caused by the bacterium Pectobacterium carotovorum, and it is transmitted through contaminated soil or seed. Symptoms of blackleg include yellowing and wilting of the leaves, followed by the death of the plant.

2. Clubroot: Clubroot is a fungal disease that affects mustard plants and other cruciferous crops. It is caused by the fungus Plasmodiophora brassicae, and it is transmitted through contaminated soil or seed. Symptoms of clubroot include stunted growth, yellowing and wilting of the leaves, and the development of swollen, distorted roots.

Diseases, pests, and weeds of mustard plant

3. Downy mildew: Downy mildew is a fungal disease that affects mustard plants and other cruciferous crops. It is caused by the fungus Peronospora parasitica, and it is transmitted through contaminated seed or soil, or through the air.

4. Powdery mildew: Powdery mildew is a fungal disease that affects mustard plants and other cruciferous crops. It is caused by the fungus Erysiphe cruciferarum, and it is transmitted through the air.

5. Root rot: Root rot is a fungal disease that affects mustard plants and other cruciferous crops. It is caused by several different fungi, including Pythium, Rhizoctonia, and Fusarium, and it is transmitted through contaminated soil or seed. Symptoms of root rot include yellowing and wilting of the leaves, followed by the death of the plant.

6. White rust: White rust is a fungal disease that affects mustard plants and other cruciferous crops. It is caused by the fungus Albugo candida, and it is transmitted through contaminated seed or soil. Symptoms of white rust include the development of small, white pustules on the leaves, stems, and flowers of the plant.

7. Alternaria leaf spot: Alternaria leaf spot is a fungal disease that affects mustard plants and other cruciferous crops. It is caused by the fungus Alternaria brassicae, and it is transmitted through contaminated seed or soil, or through the air. Symptoms of Alternaria leaf spot include the development of small, circular, brown or black lesions on the leaves, stems, and flowers of the plant.

Pests

1. Aphids: Aphids are small, sap-sucking insects that can infest mustard plants and other cruciferous crops. They are typically green or black in color, and they can be found on the undersides of the leaves and stems. Aphids feed by piercing the plant tissue and sucking out the sap, which can cause yellowing and wilting of the leaves and stunted growth of the plant.

2. Cabbage loopers: Cabbage loopers are small, green caterpillars that can infest mustard plants and other cruciferous crops. They are the larvae of a moth, and they feed on the leaves and stems of the plant.

3. Cutworms: Cutworms are small, brown or gray caterpillars that can infest mustard plants and other cruciferous crops. They cause them to wilt and die.

4. Flea beetles: Flea beetles are small, black or brown beetles that can infest mustard plants and other cruciferous crops. They are most active during the warmer months of the year, and they feed on the leaves and stems of the plant, causing small, round holes.

5. Diamondback moths: Diamondback moths are small, pale green or yellow moths that can infest mustard plants and other cruciferous crops. They are most active during the warmer months of the year.

6. Slugs: Slugs are small, slimy, mollusk-like creatures that can infest mustard plants and other cruciferous crops. They are most active at night, and they feed on the leaves and stems of the plant, causing holes and ragged edges. Slugs can also transmit viral diseases to the plants.

Weeds

1. Chickweed: Chickweed is a small, annual weed that can infest mustard plants and other cruciferous crops. It has small, white flowers and glossy, dark green leaves.

2. Field pennycress: Field pennycress is a small, annual weed that can infest mustard plants and other cruciferous crops. It has small, white flowers and glossy, dark green leaves.

3. Shepherd’s purse: Shepherd’s purse is a small, annual weed that can infest mustard plants and other cruciferous crops. It has small, white flowers and triangular, green leaves. Shepherd’s purse competes with the mustard plants for sunlight, water, and nutrients, and it can reduce the yield of the crop.

4. Wild mustard: Wild mustard is a small, annual weed that can infest mustard plants and other cruciferous crops. It has small, yellow flowers and glossy, dark green leaves.

5. Wild radish: Wild radish is a small, annual weed that can infest mustard plants and other cruciferous crops. It has small, white or yellow flowers and glossy, dark green leaves.

6. Wild turnip: Wild turnip is a small, annual weed that can infest mustard plants and other cruciferous crops. It has small, white or yellow flowers and glossy, dark green leaves.

To control these problems, it is important to practice good cultural practices, such as proper fertilization, irrigation, and weed control. It may also be necessary to use pesticides or fungicides to control pests and diseases. However, it is important to use these chemicals responsibly and follow the label instructions carefully to avoid damaging the environment or human health.

By-products of mustard plant

Mustard plants are a source of a variety of by-products that are used in a range of industries and applications. Some of the most common by-products of mustard plants include:

1. Mustard seeds: Mustard seeds are the small, hard seeds of the mustard plant and are used as a spice in cooking. They are also used in the production of mustard sauces and mustard oil.

By-products of

2. Mustard oil: Mustard oil is extracted from mustard seeds and is used as a cooking oil in many parts of the world, including India and Bangladesh. It is high in monounsaturated fatty acids and has been shown to have potential health benefits.

3. Mustard condiment (sauce): Mustard sauce is made from mustard seeds that have been ground and mixed with vinegar and other ingredients to create a spicy condiment. It is used as a condiment for various dishes and is popular in many parts of the world, including Europe and the United States.

4. Mustard flour: Mustard flour is made by grinding mustard seeds into a fine powder. It is used as a spice in cooking and can also be used as a natural food coloring.

5. Mustard greens: Mustard greens are the edible leaves of the mustard plant and are commonly used in salads and cooked dishes. They are high in nutrients and have a spicy, pungent flavor.

6. Mustard biomass: Mustard biomass is the total mass of living and dead material produced by mustard plants, including the seeds, leaves, and stems. It can be used as a renewable energy source and as a natural fertiliser.

7. Mustard tannins: Mustard tannins are a group of compounds found in mustard plants that have astringent and preservative properties. They are used in the production of leather, inks, and dyes, and have also been shown to have potential health benefits.

Advantages and benefits of mustard plant

Health

  1. May help lower blood pressure: Mustard seeds contain compounds called glucosinolates, which have been shown to lower blood pressure. A study published in the Journal of Nutrition found that consuming mustard seeds reduced blood pressure in people with high blood pressure.
  2. May improve bone health: Mustard seeds are a good source of calcium, which is important for bone health. A study published in the Journal of Nutrition found that consuming mustard seeds improved bone density and strength in postmenopausal women.
  3. May aid in weight loss: Mustard seeds are low in calories and high in fiber, which can help you feel full and satisfied, potentially aiding in weight loss. A study published in the Journal of Food Science and Technology found that consuming mustard seeds reduced body weight and waist circumference in obese individuals.
  4. May improve cardiovascular health: Mustard seeds contain antioxidants and have been shown to lower cholesterol levels and improve heart health. A study published in the Journal of Nutrition found that consuming mustard seeds reduced total cholesterol levels and LDL (bad) cholesterol levels in people with high cholesterol.
  5. May reduce the risk of cancer: Mustard seeds contain compounds called glucosinolates, which have been shown to have anti-cancer properties. A study published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry found that consuming mustard seeds reduced the growth of cancer cells.
  6. May improve digestion: Mustard seeds are high in fiber, which can help improve bowel function and reduce the risk of constipation. A study published in the Journal of Food Science and Technology found that consuming mustard seeds increased stool frequency and improved bowel function in people with constipation.
  7. May improve brain function: Mustard seeds are a good source of thiamin, which is important for brain function. A study published in the Journal of Nutrition found that consuming mustard seeds improved cognitive function in elderly individuals.
  8. May reduce the risk of birth defects: Mustard seeds are a good source of folic acid, which is important for fetal development. A deficiency in folic acid during pregnancy can increase the risk of birth defects. A study published in the Journal of Nutrition found that consuming mustard seeds improved folic acid status in pregnant women.
  9. May improve skin health: Mustard seeds are a good source of vitamins and minerals that are important for skin health. A study published in the Journal of Nutrition found that consuming mustard seeds improved skin elasticity and reduced the appearance of wrinkles in postmenopausal women.
  10. May have anti-inflammatory effects: Mustard seeds contain compounds called isothiocyanates, which have been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties. A study published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry found that consuming mustard seeds reduced inflammation in the body.

Environmental

  1. Can be grown in a variety of climates: Mustard plants are hardy and can be grown in a range of climates, including cool, temperate regions and tropical areas. This makes them a useful crop for farmers in different parts of the world.
  2. Can improve soil health: Mustard plants are known to improve soil health by increasing soil fertility and reducing soil erosion. They are also capable of fixing nitrogen from the air, which can help improve soil nutrient levels.
  3. Can be used as a natural pest control: Mustard plants produce a chemical called allyl isothiocyanate, which has been shown to have insect-repellent properties. This can help reduce the need for chemical pesticides, which can be harmful to the environment.Advantages and benefits of mustard plant
  4. Can be used as a natural weed control: Mustard plants can help control weeds by competing with them for sunlight, water, and nutrients. This can reduce the need for chemical herbicides, which can have negative environmental impacts.
  5. Can be used as a natural mulch: Mustard plants produce a large amount of biomass, including leaves, stems, and seeds. This biomass can be used as a natural mulch to help retain soil moisture and suppress weeds.
  6. Can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions: Mustard plants are capable of fixing nitrogen from the air, which can help reduce the need for synthetic fertilizers. These fertilizers are often made from natural gas, which is a fossil fuel that releases greenhouse gases when burned.
  7. Can help conserve water: Mustard plants are drought-tolerant and can grow with minimal irrigation. This can help conserve water resources, which are becoming increasingly scarce in many parts of the world.
  8. Can be used as a renewable energy source: Mustard plants produce a large amount of biomass, which can be used as a renewable energy source. The biomass can be burned to produce heat or converted into biofuels such as bioethanol or biodiesel.
  9. Can improve air quality: Mustard plants absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and release oxygen through the process of photosynthesis. This can help improve air quality and reduce the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
  10. Can help conserve biodiversity: Mustard plants can provide habitat and food for a variety of wildlife, including birds, insects, and small mammals. This can help conserve biodiversity and support healthy ecosystems.

Side effects and disadvantages of mustard plant

Mustard plants have a some potential side effects and disadvantages, including:

  1. May cause allergic reactions: Some people may be allergic to mustard or the products made from it, such as mustard seeds or mustard oil. Allergic reactions can range from mild to severe and may include symptoms such as hives, rash, and difficulty breathing.
  2. May cause food poisoning: Mustard seeds can be contaminated with harmful bacteria, such as E. coli, which can cause food poisoning. It is important to wash mustard seeds thoroughly and cook them properly to reduce the risk of food poisoning.
  3. May interfere with medications: Mustard seeds contain a compound called coumarin, which can interfere with the absorption of certain medications. It is important to talk to a healthcare provider before consuming mustard seeds if you are taking any medications.
  4. May cause digestive problems: Mustard seeds contain a type of carbohydrate called FODMAPs, which can cause digestive problems in some people. FODMAPs are poorly absorbed by the body and can lead to symptoms such as bloating, gas, and diarrhea.
  5. May interfere with lab tests: Mustard seeds may interfere with certain lab tests, such as those used to measure liver function. It is important to tell your healthcare provider if you have recently consumed mustard seeds before undergoing any lab tests.
  6. May cause kidney stones: Mustard seeds contain a compound called oxalate, which can increase the risk of kidney stones in some people. Kidney stones are hard deposits of minerals and acid salts that can form in the kidneys and cause pain and other symptoms.
  7. May affect fertility: Mustard seeds may affect fertility in men. A study published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry found that consuming large amounts of mustard seeds reduced sperm count and motility in rats. It is not known if this effect occurs in humans.
  8. May affect blood pressure: Mustard seeds contain compounds called glucosinolates, which have been shown to lower blood pressure. Consuming large amounts of mustard seeds may cause blood pressure to drop, which can be dangerous for people with low blood pressure.
  9. May cause mouth sores: Mustard seeds contain a compound called allyl isothiocyanate, which can irritate the mouth and cause sores. It is important to consume mustard seeds in moderation to reduce the risk of mouth sores.
  10. May cause skin irritation: Mustard seeds and mustard oil may cause skin irritation in some people. It is important to test a small patch of skin before applying mustard oil or products made from mustard seeds to the skin. If you experience any irritation, stop using the product immediately.
  11. Invasiveness: Mustard plants can spread quickly and become invasive in some areas, particularly in gardens or fields where they are not kept in check.
  12. Limited crop yield: Mustard plants generally produce a smaller crop yield compared to other brassica crops like broccoli or cauliflower.
  13. Pest and disease susceptibility: Mustard plants are susceptible to pests such as aphids, cabbage loopers, and flea beetles, as well as diseases like clubroot and blackleg.
  14. Limited storage life: Fresh mustard greens have a relatively short shelf life and do not store well, making them difficult to transport and sell.
  15. Taste and texture: Some people may find the taste and texture of mustard greens to be too strong or bitter for their liking.

Nutritional properties of mustard plant

Mustard greens are a nutritious vegetable that are high in vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. Here is a detailed breakdown of the nutritional properties of mustard greens per 100 grams (3.5 ounces), along with the daily value (%DV) based on a 2000 calorie diet:

  • Calories: 27
  • Protein: 2.5 grams (5% DV)
  • Total fat: 0.3 grams (0% DV)
  • Total carbohydrates: 5 grams (2% DV)
  • Fiber: 2 grams (8% DV)
  • Sugars: 1 gram

Vitamins:

  • Vitamin A: 10,000 IU (200% DV)
  • Vitamin C: 27 mg (45% DV)
  • Vitamin E: 1.8 mg (9% DV)
  • Vitamin K: 547 mcg (682% DV)
  • Thiamin: 0.1 mg (7% DV)
  • Riboflavin: 0.1 mg (6% DV)
  • Niacin: 0.8 mg (4% DV)
  • Vitamin B6: 0.1 mg (5% DV)
  • Folate: 120 mcg (30% DV)

Minerals:

  • Calcium: 74 mg (7% DV)
  • Iron: 1.8 mg (10% DV)
  • Magnesium: 21 mg (5% DV)
  • Phosphorus: 38 mg (4% DV)
  • Potassium: 250 mg (7% DV)
  • Sodium: 70 mg (3% DV)
  • Zinc: 0.3 mg (3% DV)

In addition to these nutrients, mustard greens also contain small amounts of other vitamins and minerals, as well as a variety of antioxidants and phytochemicals that may provide additional health benefits. It is worth noting that the nutritional content of mustard greens may vary slightly depending on factors such as variety, growing conditions, and cooking methods.

Conclusion

Mustard plant is a versatile and nutritious vegetable that has been cultivated and consumed for centuries. They are high in vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants, and have a spicy and pungent flavor that adds depth and flavor to a variety of dishes. While there are a few potential disadvantages to mustard plants, such as their invasiveness and susceptibility to pests and diseases, they are still an important and nutritious part of many diets around the world.

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