Fish cultivation is one of the ways to increase the productivity of fishery technology development. Technology innovation of fishery in Indonesia has existed since long ago, especially in Lampung province. The technological development of trout cultivation makes the fishery business more effective, efficient, economical, highly competitive, and environmentally friendly.
This research aimed to identify the plus value of fish cultivation that has economic value. The aquaponics system’s principle was aimed to make trout cultivation become environmentally friendly. This research was conducted in Lampung province at South Lampung regency and Central Lampung regency.
The research had been done from May to August 20th, 2020. The data used in this research were the kind of primary data and secondary data. Primary data was obtained from the community of fish cultivation at Central Lampung supported by a related agency.
The method of research was aimed to analyze the worthiness of the business. Based on the result of research, it can be concluded that the trout cultivation of catfish and mustard greens with aquaponics technology was worth and profitable as economical.
The principle of aquaponics technology was utilizing nutrient, food waste, and fish metabolism in case of symbiotic mutualism among fish, plants, and bacteria. Aquaponics technology of closed recirculation produced fish optimally by saving water use and could exploit the waste of fish cultivation so that the aquaponics system could become the system of fish cultivation that is environmentally friendly.
The success of fish cultivation depends on a system’s effectiveness in handling or produce cultivation waste . Technology innovation is needed to anticipate the reduction of aquaculture production caused by the reduction of water quality. Technology innovation is expected could reduce waste ,, having economic value, and cultivate media. The Aquaponics system is one of the systems that could solve the waste problem of fish cultivation.The
Aquaponics system is one of the technologies integrated into fish cultivation that sealed (recirculating aquaculture). Aquaponics is a bio-integration that connects the recirculating aquaculture to plant/hydroponic vegetables . Cultivation of an aquaponics system requires a plant that could function as a biological filter in the water ecosystem .
Kind of water plant that often uses in aquaponics system such as water spinach (Ipomea aquatica), lettuce (Lactuca satica), pokchai/mustard greens (Brassica chinensis), and tomato (Lycopersicon esculantum), meanwhile the kind of fish that could be used in an aquaponics system are the consumption fish and decorative fish . The province of Lampung has a big potential to be developed as the biggest fish producer in Indonesia both in fresh water fishery, brackish water (shrimp and milkfish), and sea fishery , .
Lampung province has massive potential in sea cultivation fishery that is gained more than 10.600 hectares (ha). Besides, there is also a potential of the brackish fishery, both for enlargement and hatchery of fish/shrimp that gained 61.200 hectares. One of the ways to increase productivity is to develop the cultivation technology of freshwater fisheries. Technology innovation of the fishery sector is not a new thing in Indonesia, especially in Lampung.
The development technology cultivation of freshwater fishery aims to make the business of fishery become more effective , efficient, economical, highly competitive, and environmentally friendly based on the local culture. The local fishes are very potential to be developed to become commodity cultivation as biologically, economy, society, and culture , .
The use of technology cultivation fishery in this era is expected could give an impact both in increasing the productivity and increasing the well-being of life by adding the income from grazier/cultivator of freshwater fish , , so that the people in Lampung could be successful.
The study of dissemination cultivation freshwater fish technology that has economical value in Lampung is expected could give a recommendation to the development of freshwater fish, in case of increasing well-being life of grazier/cultivator, and the local fish cultivation is also expected could maintain the sustainability of fish cultivation and move the economic matters in Lampung.
The objective of the research was to identify the advantage value of freshwater fish cultivation which has economic value and principle of aquaponics as a system of fish cultivation that is environmentally friendly.
Financial worthiness of catfish cultivation with aquaponics technology
Cultivation of local fish increased year by year, it was because the cost was worth enough and the demand increased continuously. Time of investation with aquaponics technology was assumed could gain in three years (customized to the time of aquaponics investigation). For that reason, the worthiness financial study of this research was done in 3 years.
The description of investigation worthiness measurement was as follows:
1. NPV value > 0, means that the business of snakehead fish cultivation, bagrid catfish, and catfish was worth running. It was because along with the business time, this investigation was beneficial, therefore at the end of the investigation year, it gained profit for each kind of fish were Rp 40.424.744,80, Rp56.095.019,88, and Rp12.809.096,10.
2. IRR value > Valid interest rate. A business was worth it if it had an IRR value higher than the level of valid interest rate. The interest rate value was 5,25% (Based on interest rate BI reference).
3. B/C > 1 Net Value, means that the business was worth (profitable). B/C Net described the profit ratio on the outcome. The value 3,54, 4,52, and 1,80 were shown that each outcome was Rp.1, therefore the business could gain profit 3,54, 4,52, and Rp.1,80.
4. Discounted Payback Period was a method to measure the worthiness of a business that used to determine how fast investigation outcome could be repaid.
5. If Discounted Payback Period was shorter than the investigation time, so the business is worth running. DPP/PBP showed that number 1 was meant the first year of investigation, the business could return its capital.
Based on the calculation of financial worthiness above, it can be concluded that the business of catfish cultivation by using aquaponics technology could be profitable.
Aquaponics System and Environmental Sustainability
The business of cultivation by using the aquaponics system at Central Lampung regency had an environmental aspect. On the environment/ecosystem aspects, the first thing that must be done was to maintain and protect the waste from cultivation activity of the aquaponics system so that it would not contaminate the surrounding environment.
The purpose of this aspect was to make the business of cultivation aquaponics system could be applied continuously (sustainable). Aquaponics is a combination of aquaculture and hydroponic which has a function to maintain the fish and plant in one connecting system.
In this system, the waste produced by Nile tilapia fish can be used as fertilizer for water spinach, the water with the recirculation system from fish maintenance is filtered by the water spinach media, then it can be reused by Nile tilapia fish.
In this case, Nile tilapia fish and water spinach obtained are healthy, because they are free from chemical things. The interaction between Nile tilapia fish and water spinach can produce an ideal environment to grow more productive more than the general cultivation method.
Aquaponics biofilter is a system on cultivation technique of fish and plant that is expected to preserve water quality for fish and plant tolerance in some specific periods, without disturbing fish growth and aquatic plant which has function as biofilter .
The aquatic plants can utilize the nutrient effectively so that it could have some benefits and the use of water could be more efficient ,. It could also decrease the waste pollution effect on the public water. The advantage of the aquaponics system is utilizing the water more efficiently and environmentally friendly because the condition of the water that uses for aquaponics can be controlled well .
Besides, another advantage of the aquaponics system is it can minimalize the use of fertilizer because the fertilizer can take from fish dung in the water.
Aquaponics research had been started by Virgin Island University (UVI) in 1971. The research had started due to the difficulty of having freshwater fish and plants in Semiarid island, Australia. The result of this research was used as a basic aquaponics system which is the aim as commercial, but there are still many difficulties on the effort of system development. The Aquaponics system is started to develop widely around 1980 .
All of the business in case of combining the aquaculture with hydroponic is not work out well until around 1980, but there are some innovations that had been done to change the technology of aquaponics to become one of the systems that could produce food material .
Aquaponics is saving many energies so that it could prevent waste in the public area. It could produce organic fertilizer for plants (better than chemical things). The reuse of wastewater on biofilter could ensure the material food production from multicultural, it makes the aquaponics is worth to be declared as a role model for green technology , .
The cultivation of freshwater catfish with mustard greens/Pakcoy using an aquaponics system was worth economically and profitable. The aquaponics system’s principle was to utilize nutrients from food waste on fish metabolism through mutualism symbiosis among fish, plants, and bacteria. Aquaponics systems with closed recirculation could produce fish optimally by saving water use and utilizing fish cultivation waste. The aquaponics system can be said as a fish cultivation system that is environmentally friendly.
Source: Zainal, A. G., Yulianto, H., & Yanfika, H. (2021, April). Financial benefits of the environmentally friendly aquaponic media system. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 739, No. 1, p. 012024). IOP Publishing.
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