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Green Manure

by Zahid Ahmed
Green Manure

Green manure are crops that are grown specifically to be tilled back into the soil to improve soil health and fertility. They are a form of cover cropping, which refers to the practice of planting a crop to cover the soil during periods when it would otherwise be left bare. Green manure can be used for a variety of purposes, including erosion control, pest management, and soil improvement.

The history of green manures can be traced back to ancient civilizations, where farmers would plant cover crops to protect the soil during fallow periods. Today, green manures are used globally, but they are especially popular in organic and sustainable farming systems. Many farmers in developed countries have adopted green manures as a way to reduce their reliance on synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, while farmers in developing countries use green manures to improve soil health and increase crop yields.

One of the key benefits of green manure is its ability to improve soil fertility. As the green manure crops grow, they take up nutrients from the soil, which are then returned to the soil when the crops are tilled in. This can help to replenish nutrients that have been depleted by previous crops, and it can also increase the soil’s ability to hold water and air. This can lead to better crop yields and reduce the need for synthetic fertilizers.

Green manure can also help to control erosion and improve soil structure. By covering the soil with vegetation, green manures help to reduce the amount of water and wind erosion that occurs, and they can also improve the soil’s structure by increasing the amount of organic matter in the soil.

In terms of scientific evidence, numerous studies have been conducted on the benefits of green manures. These studies have shown that green manures can improve soil fertility, reduce the need for synthetic fertilizers, and increase crop yields. Additionally, green manures have been found to be effective in controlling erosion and improving soil structure. However, there is also some concern about the environmental impact of green manures, particularly if they are grown with the use of synthetic fertilizers or pesticides.


There are different types of green manures, with different functions and characteristics, for example:

  • Legume green manures which are cover crops that are particularly high in nitrogen, which is an important nutrient for most crops.
  • Grass green manures which are cover crops that are high in carbon, which can help to improve soil structure and water-holding capacity.
  • Cruciferous green manures which are cover crops that are known for their ability to suppress weeds and pests

In terms of management, farmers can choose to incorporate green manure in several ways. Some farmers opt to plant a green manure crop in between regular crop rotations, while others incorporate green manures into their overall crop rotation plan. The timing of planting and the length of time a green manure crop is allowed to grow can also vary depending on the farmer’s goals and the specific crop being grown.

Several factors influence the effectiveness of green manures. For example, the climate and soil type will play a role in determining which green manures are best suited for a particular area. Additionally, farmers need to take into account the specific needs of the crop they are planning to grow, in terms of the timing and duration of the green manure crop.

Overall, Green manure is an important tool for sustainable and organic farmers looking to improve soil health, fertility and increase crop yields, while reducing the need for synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. They have been used for centuries and have a proven track record of improving soil health and fertility, as well as controlling erosion and improving soil structure. However, it is important to consider the environmental impact of green manure and how they are managed, as well.

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